Saturday, December 16, 2017

Everything about National Medical Commission of India

Union Cabinet has recently approved the National Medical Commission Bill which does away with the old Medical Council of India which was said to be marred by many problems and irregularities.

Problems with Medical Council of India

# Reports of Corruption against the officials in recognizing medical institutions and professionals.

# MCI has been dealing more in medical education prospects with negligent focus on inculcating ethics in medical treatment.

# The low doctor to population ratio in India has not been improved despite MCI having a mandate to solve the problem.

# The setting up of medical colleges has not been in accordance to the needs of the region and people. Some states are having negligent medical college facilities whereas others are having more. Geographical equality of medical colleges constructions needs to be maintained.

# The curriculum of medical education in India has not been in accordance to the Indian needs specially for the rural areas and masses.

# More focus has been on the infrastructure and less on quality, training and skill impartation of medical education.

What the National Medical Commission Intends to do ?

# Will remove the heavy handed regulatory control approach of Medical Council of India over medical institutions.

# Will ease the processes for colleges to manage undergraduate and postgraduate courses. Earlier, the MCI approval was needed for establishing, renewing, recognising and increasing seats in a UG course. Under the new proposal, permissions need only be sought for establishment and recognition.

# For opening a Postgraduate Course after Undergraduate courses recognition, a separate permission would be required.

# National Medical Commission will be a 25 member body the constitution of which would be something like this - 

1. Government would nominate the Chairman and members who will be chosen by a Cabinet Secretary led committee.

2. There will be a Chairman and a member secretary.

3. There will be 12 ex-officio members which will also include among themselves four President of Boards of leading institutions like All India Institute of Medical Sciences and Indian Council of Medical Research.

4. There will be 11 part time members.

# National Medical Commission will also have the power to frame guidelines for fees for up to 40% seats in private colleges and deemed universities.

# The punishment of non-deterrence by colleges will be less harsh when compared to what happened in the case of Medical Council of India.

# The draft bill also proposes a common entrance exam and licentiate exam which all medical graduates will have to clear to get practicing licences

# The draft bill proposes for constitution of four autonomous boards entrusted with conducting undergraduate and postgraduate education, assessment and accreditation of medical institutions and registration of practitioners under the National Medical Commission.

All about Chairman and Deputy Chairman of Rajya Sabha

Chairman of the Rajya Sabha (Vice President of India)

Rajya Sabha presiding officer is known by the designation of the Chairman of Rajya Sabha.

Vice President of India is the ex-officio Chairman of the Rajya Sabha.

When the President of India is unable to perform its duties, the Vice President of India performs the duties of the President.

The Chairman of Rajya Sabha can be removed only when the Vice-President of India is removed, the process of which I have already discussed in the Vice President lecture.

Salaries and allowances of the Vice President of India are charged on the Consolidated Fund of India.

Whenever the Vice President acts as the President, he is given the allowances of the President and not the Vice President.

When the resolution for the removal of Vice President is under consideration he can not preside over the proceedings of the Rajya Sabha, though he can be present and take part in the proceedings without voting power.

Chairman while presiding over Rajya Sabha has the power of a casting vote in the event of a tie.

Although many of the functions and powers of the Chairman of Rajya Sabha are similar to that of the Speaker of Lok Sabha, though there are some differences between the two which are -

1. Speaker has the power to certify whether a particular bill is money bill or not.

2. Speaker has the power to vote in the first instance when a removal motion has been initiated against him, whereas this privilege is not available to the Chairman of the Rajya Sabha.

3. Speaker of the Lok Sabha presides over the Joint sitting of the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha which is being called in by the President.

4. Speaker of the Lok Sabha is the member of the Lok Sabha, whereas the Chairman of the Rajya Sabha is not the member of the Rajya Sabha.

Deputy Chairman of the Rajya Sabha

# Looks are the duties of the Chairman when the Chairman is not present for some reasons.

# Deputy Chairman is not subordinate to the Chairman of Rajya Sabha and is directly responsible to the House.

# Deputy Chairman is elected by the members of the Rajya Sabha from amongst themselves.

# Salaries and allowances are decided by the Parliament and are charged upon the Consolidated Fund of India.

# For leaving his post, he has to address his resignation to the Chairman of the Rajya Sabha.

# For removing the Deputy Chairman, a resolution supported by an absolute majority of the Rajya Sabha is required.

# The functions and powers of the Deputy Speaker are very similar to the Deputy Speaker of the Lok Sabha

Facts about Speaker, Deputy Speaker and Speaker ProTem of Lok Sabha

Speaker of the Lok Sabha

Speaker of the Lok Sabha is the presiding officer of Lok Sabha.

He is elected by the members of the Lok Sabha from amongst themselves somewhere after the newly formed Lok Sabha first meeting.

The Lok Sabha Speaker under normal circumstances remains the Speaker as far as he is the member of the Lok Sabha.

He loses his seat as a speaker when he is not a member of the Lok Sabha. 

He can also resign by addressing his resignation to the Deputy Speaker of the Lok Sabha.

If he has to be removed by the House, then a resolution has to be passed by the majority of all the members of the Lok Sabha after giving a 14 days advance notice to the Speaker.

When a resolution for removing the Speaker of the Lok Sabha is taken up, then during this time period the Speaker cannot preside over as the head of the house.

During this time the Speaker acts as a normal member of the House. He can take part in the proceedings of Lok Sabha and vote on bills in the first instance.

When the Lok Sabha Speaker acts officially he doesn't votes in the first stance and has a casting vote in case of a deadlock.

The office of Lok Sabha becomes important looking at the fact that when the Lok Sabha gets dissolved the Speaker still remains unless the new Lok Sabha is formed.

Lok Sabha Speaker Autonomy Power and Responsibilities

The Speaker is the head of the Lok Sabha, and its representative.

He is the guardian of powers and privileges of the members, the House as a whole and its committees.

He is the principal spokesman of the House, and his decision in all Parliamentary matters is final.

He is thus much more than merely the presiding officer of the Lok Sabha.

In these capacities, he is vested with vast, varied and vital responsibilities and enjoys great honour, high dignity and supreme authority within the House.

Source of Power of the Lok Sabha Speaker

# Constitution of India

# Rules of Procedure and Conduct of Business of Lok Sabha

# Parliamentary Conventions

Autonomy of Lok Sabha Speaker

Has been provided security of tenure.

The resolution for removal has to be passed by absolute majority and removal motion should have support of at least 50 members.

Remuneration i.e. Salary and allowances belong to non-plan expenditure. They are charged on the Consolidated Fund of India.

The power of the Speaker to regulate and control the proceedings/business of Lok Sabha is not subject to the jurisdiction of any court.

In Britain, the speaker has to resign from the political party after being elected to the office, however no such condition exists in India.

Functions and Responsibilities of Lok Sabha Speaker

# Maintains order and decorum in the House so that business and proceedings of the House can be carried on properly.

# Adjournment of the House is done by the Speaker.

# The meeting of the House is suspended by the Speaker in the absence of quorum.

# Has the power of Casting Vote in the event of a deadlock.

# Joint Session of both Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha summoned by the President of India is presided over by the Speaker of the Lok Sabha.

# He can bar the presence of strangers in the chambers, lobby and gallery of the House in the event of a secret sitting at the request of the leader of the House

# Speaker decides on the disqualification of members in accordance with the Anti-Defection law provided under 10th Schedule of the Constitution.

# Speaker decides whether a Bill is a money bill or not.

# He is by default the Chairman of Business Advisory Committee, Rules Committee and General Purpose Committee.

# Speaker appoints the Chairman of all Parliamentary Committees.

Deputy Speaker of the Lok  Sabha

I will detail only the most important points in relation to the Deputy Speaker and not in detail.

# The office of the Speaker and Deputy Speaker originated as the President and Deputy President under the under the provisions of Montague Chelmsford reforms(Government of India Act 1919).

# They remained President and Deputy President till 1947.

# The Speaker and Deputy Speaker do not have to subscribe to any special oath for the office. They have to only to subscribe to oath and affirmation as being done by other Member of the Parliament.

# The process of removal of a Deputy Speaker is similar to that of the Speaker of the Lok Sabha.

# He will address his resignation to the Speaker of the Lok Sabha.

# The Deputy Speaker performs the functions of the Speaker when the Speaker is not present in the sitting of the House.

# When Speaker is present, Deputy Speaker acts as any other normal member of the House.

# When Deputy Speaker is a member of any of the Parliamentary Committee, he automatically becomes its Chairman.

# His salaries and allowances are charged on the Consolidated Fund of India.

# Deputy Speaker is not subordinate to the Speaker. He is directly responsible to the Lok Sabha.

Speaker Pro-tem

Under the provisions of the Constitution, just before the first meeting of the newly elected Lok Sabha, the Speaker of the previous Lok Sabha vacates his office. 

President usually appoints the senior most member of the Lok Sabha as the Speaker Pro-tem.

President himself administers the oath to the Speaker Pro-tem.

The responsibility of the Speaker Pro-tem is to administer the oath to all the members of the newly elected Lok Sabha and also assist in the election of the new Speaker of the Lok Sabha.

After the new Speaker has been elected, Speaker Pro-tem ceases to exist as it is a temporary arrangement.

Friday, December 15, 2017

National Employment Policy of India

India has been one of the fastest growing economy of the World and has been termed as the growth engine of the future.

Despite this stellar performance on the economic front the situation of unemployment is India is pretty bad and is on towards a downward trajectory specially on account of excessive mechanisation and reduction of manual work.

Also technologies like Artificial Intelligence are further going to create a problem.

So it is expected that the Central Government is going to launch the First National Employment Policy of India in the Union Budget 2018.

The National Employment Policy is said to have a comprehensive roadmap outlined for all the employers and workers in a bid to create quality jobs across all sectors through economic, social and labour policy interventions.

National Employment Policy is said to broadly target Micro and Small Enterprises for job creation, will provide incentives to the employers, and will bring in reforms to attract employers.

However all these things are already happening through different policies of the government.

How the National Employment Policy will differ exactly from the current steps taken by the government can only be seen after the official government policy is out.

The problem of providing decent enough employment to 1 crore youth joining workforce every year requires a whole lot of innovation which is said to be addressed by this policy.

An official told The Economic Times, "The policy will moot fiscal incentives for employers across labour-intensive sectors to create more jobs as well as employees to get engaged in the organised sector as this would fetch them minimum wages and enough social security."

Few months back the National think tank of India - NITI AAYOG reported that more than unemployment, severe underemployment is what is troubling India more.

Unemployment means that you want a job you have a qualification but you do not have a job.

Underemployment means that you have a job but your efficiency and skills are not being properly employed and utilised.

National Employment Policy is said to be focussing on this issue in particular detail.

The article will be updated when further information regarding the policy is out.

Member of Parliament Qualification & Disqualification Procedure in India

For being a Member of Parliament in India qualifications laid down in the Constitution of India

# He must be a citizen of India.

# He must make and subscribe to an oath or affirmation before the person authorised by the election commission for this purpose.

In his oath or affirmation, he swears

1. To bear true faith and allegiance to the Constitution of India

2. To uphold the sovereignty and integrity of India

# He must be not less than 30 years of age in the case of the Rajya Sabha and not less than 25 years of age in the case of the Lok Sabha.

# He must possess other qualifications prescribed by Parliament.

Qualifications which are being laid down in the Representation of People Act (1951) and not in the Constitution of India

He has to be registered as a voter in any parliamentary constituency of India.

This is applicable for both, the Rajya Sabha and the Lok Sabha.

Before 2003, there was a rule that contesting for a Rajya Sabha seat the candidate must be an elector in the particular state from where he is contesting but this requirement has been waived off since 2003.

In 2006, the Supreme Court upheld the constitutional validity of this change.

A member of scheduled castes or scheduled tribes can also contest a seat not reserved for them.

How a Member of Parliament is disqualified in India

Disqualification Conditions of Member of Parliament laid down in the Constitution

# if he holds any office of profit under the Union or state government (except that of a minister or any other office exempted by Parliament).

# if he is of unsound mind and stands so declared by a court.

# if he is an undischarged insolvent

# if he is not a citizen of India or has voluntarily acquired the citizenship of a foreign state or is under any acknowledgement of allegiance to a foreign state

# if he is so disqualified under any law made by Parliament.

Disqualification Conditions of Member of Parliament laid down in the Representation of People Act (1951) and not in the Constitution of India

# He must not have been found guilty of certain election offences or corrupt practices in the elections

# He must not have been convicted for any offence resulting in imprisonment for two or more years.

# However, the detention of a person under a preventive detention law is not a disqualification.

# Should file his election expenses within the time.

# Should not be involved in government contracts, works or services.

# He must not be a director or managing agent nor hold an office of profit in a corporation in which the government has at least 25 per cent share

# He must not have been dismissed from government service for corruption or disloyalty to the State.

# He must not have been convicted for promoting enmity between different groups or for bribery.

# Should not promote social crimes such as untouchability, dowry and sati.

On the question whether a member is subject to any of the above disqualifications, the president’s decision is final.

However, he should obtain the opinion of the election commission and act accordingly.

# If the Member of Parliament is disqualified on the grounds of Defection according to the provisions of the 10th schedule of India.

Lily Thomas Case 2013

Section 8(4) of RPA, 1951 gave a reprieve of three months to legislators from immediate disqualification if they were convicted for an offence, so that they could file an appeal in the higher courts.

The SC in Lily Thomas case 2013, reversing one of its own judgment of 2005 where it accepted differential treatment of legislators and candidates, invalidated Section 8(4) on the grounds that :

(i) Differential treatment of legislators and candidates violates the law of equality as envisaged under Art 14

(ii) It interpreted Article 101(3)(a) to state that any disqualification is immediate

In order to negate this judgement the Parliament subsequently passed an amendment to RPA, 1951 reinstating Section 8(4) in effect by giving a cooling off period of 90 days and allowing the convicted legislator to continue if he/she is able to get a stay on either the sentence or conviction.

The passage of this Bill without a discussion in Rajya Sabha created huge furor as it was an action that was seemingly governed by politician – criminal nexus which has led to the menace of criminalization of politics.

However the then Law Minister Mr Kapil Sibal had argued that the amendment would prevent political victimization as false charges can be filed against a person.

In light of huge public pressure, the bill was subsequently withdrawn.

Thursday, December 14, 2017

Everything about Lingayat Sect

The philosophy of Lingayatism was propounded by Basavanna who was a social reformer, Kannada poet and philosopher of the 12th century.

He was active during the reign of Kalachuri dynasty King Bijjala I in the present day state of Karnataka.

Basavanna also initiated a movement names Virashaivas which means ardent followers of Lord Shiva.

This is the reason that the terms Lingayatism and Virashaivism have been many a times used synonymously.

So Lingayatism was one of the Shaivite religious tradition which was centred around Lord Shiva.

The society was of 12th century Karnataka was severely marred by caste restrictions, feudalism and Brahmanical Hindu values.

The Karnataka Brahmanical society of that time was predominantly centred on Shiva Bhakti.

The Lingayat sect rose against the Shaivite Brahmanical traditions of discriminatory Hindu social traditions  like wearing of sacred thread, caste distinctions etc. but they kept Shiva bhakti at the centre of their faith.

This means that they wanted to purge the society off its prevalent evils.

Basavanna's aim was to propagate the feeling of brotherhood, equality and freedom.

A wider tradition of Bhakti movement was going on in South India since the 8th century.

The Lingayat sect origin can also be traced in the Shaiva Nayanar traditions which was there from 7th to 11th century.

Basavanna also promoted devotional worship but rejected the concept of temple worships and rituals.

Almost all the Bhakti traditions revolved around reforming the Hindu religion but according to some historians the case of Lingayat tradition is slightly different.

Lingayats challenged Hinduism at its roots and become a properly organised movement which led to the strict institutionalisation of the values that other Bhakti traditions were presenting as a reform.

Lingayat Bhakti movement in Karnataka transformed itself into a cult and became hereditary in nature which did not happened with other Bhakti traditions.

However in order to counter this argument in can also be said that Lingayats have many traits which make them a part of the Hindu culture.

One reason is the association of Ligayatism with Virashaivism.

Some historical evidences say that Lingayatism and Virashaivism is entirely different and many consider them to be the same as told at the start of the lecture.

One difference is that Virashaivism adopts discriminatory social practices and Vedic texts which are severely refuted by Lingayats.

There is a big debate on whether Basavanna found the Lingayat sect or was a mere reformer of the Virashaiva tradition.

Lingayat sect also includes in its teaching many aspects of Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Upanishads etc.

So it is big controversy whether Lingayats are Hindu or not and can not be answered convincingly.

Wednesday, December 13, 2017

Hybrid Electoral System In India (Combination of Proportional Representation and First Past the Post System)

What is First Past the Post System of Election in India ??

This is the system which is currently being deployed in the Lok Sabha elections and State Legislative Assembly elections to elect the members.

This is a very simple method in which that candidate is declared winner who simply secures the majority chunk of votes in the elections.

For example, Suppose in an election A,B,C,D secure 26%, 25%,25% and 24% of the votes. Then A will be declared as the winner as compared to all others A has scored the maximum number of votes.

Reasons of adopting First Past the Post System of Election in India

It is very simple and can be easily understood by the illiterate population of India.

Before Independence, several elections have occurred on the basis of First Past the Post system so the Indian populace was very much familiar with this system.

Also this system gives authority to an individual against the Proportional Representation system in which the authority lies with the political party.

What is Proportional Representation System of Election ??

In this the election results are more representative in nature as the votes polled in minority are also counted to decide the final results.

The single party dominance is difficult to achieve.

Makes power sharing between parties and interest groups more visible.

Facilitates minority parties access to representation depending on the magnitude of the votes garnered.

For understanding it completely kindly look at my President Election and Rajya Sabha election video

Hybrid System of Election

It combines the positive features of both First Past the Post and Proportional Representation system.

In this two electoral systems using different formula are implemented simultaneously.

In this the same voters vote and some seats are taken up on the basis of First Past the Post i.e. majority/plurality system and the other on the proportional representation system.

Two types are there - 

Mixed Member Proportional System (MMP)

When the results of the two elections are linked, with seat allocations at the PR level being dependent on what happens in the plurality/majority (or other) seats and compensating for any disproportionality that arises there.

Parallel System

Where the two sets of elections are detached and distinct and are not dependent on each other for seat allocations

How Elections to the Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha are Conducted

Elections to Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha are conducted directly and indirectly.

Elections to Lok Sabha - For electing members to the Lok Sabha, direct elections are conducted in the territorial constituencies where people vote directly for the representatives of different political parties.

These constituencies are exclusively made for the election purposes and are made on following two premises -

1. Every State of India is allotted a fixed number of seats in the Lok Sabha and this process is done in such a manner that the ratio of the number of seats allotted to the State and its population is same for all the states of India as far as possible.

2. After deciding the number of seats allotted to a particular State in Lok Sabha, territorial constituencies are formed in the state in such a manner that the ratio of the population of each constituency to the number of seats allotted to it is same throughout the State.

However after every Census the seats allotted and constituencies made have to be readjusted in order to account for the population rise.

But for effectively encouraging population limiting measure, the 42nd Amendment Act of 1976 froze the seat allocation to the states in Lok Sabha and also the division of States into territorial constituencies till the year 2000 at the 1971 statistics.

Further through the 84th Amendment Act of 2001, the restriction on readjustment was further stretched by 25 year till 2026.

However the 84th Amendment Act of 2001 and 87th Amendment Act 2003 allowed the rationalisation and delimitation of territorial constituencies on the premise of 1991 census and 2001 census respectively without altering the total number of seats allotted to each state in Lok Sabha.

Seats have also been reserved for the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in the Lok Sabha and after the promulgation of the Constitution this measure was to last for 10 years (till 1960) but since then it has been extended and through the 95th Amendment Act of 2009, the reservation of seats have been extended to last till 1960.

Elections to Rajya Sabha - Elections to the Rajya Sabha happen indirectly in India. Members of the legislative assembly of all states and in Union Territories Delhi and Puducherry elect the members.

The members are elected through the method of Proportional Representation by means of Single Transferable Vote. This is same method through which the President of India is elected.

Method - Suppose there 4 vacant seats for Rajya Sabha through a State and 150 Members of Legislative Assembly. All these members will vote preferentially for this candidate and each candidate requires at least (150/(4+1))+1 vote to win. In this case 31.

What this method does it that it enables minority party to get their representative in Rajya Sabha. For eg. there are three parties having 65, 43 and 42 MLA's. So looking at the above figure we can say that parties having 65 MLA's can get 2 representatives elected and party having 43 and 42 MLA's can get 1 representative each elected if they provide first choice of a particular candidate.

Introduction to the Parliament of India (Composition and Duration)

Parliament of India is the legislative organ of the Union Government.

Parliament has a central position in the Indian democratic political system due to adoption of Parliamentary form of Government based on United Kingdom political setup.

Parliamentary form of government is also known as Westminster model of government.

Parliament of India consists of the President, Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha.

Lok Sabha is also known as Lower House/First Chamber/Popular House/House of the People.

Rajya Sabha is also known as Upper House/Second Chamber/House of Elders/Council of States.

Rajya Sabha represents the States and Union Territories of India.

Lok Sabha represents people of India as a whole.

President of India is not the part of any House but is an integral part of Parliament because without his assent no bill can become a law.

Indian Parliament represents British political system and not American political system.

Parliament of India which is Parliamentary form of Government emphasizes on interdependence between legislative and executive organs whereas Presidential form emphasizes on separation of legislative and executive organs.

Composition of Indian Parliament

Lok Sabha - Maximum Strength is 552 out of which 530 are to be from states, 20 from Union Territories and 2 members to be nominated by the President from the Anglo Indian Community.

However currently our Lok Sabha has only 545 members, the reason for which is that the 7 vacant seats (552-545=7) are left for the areas of Pakistan Occupied Kashmir.

Rajya Sabha - Maximum Strength is 250 out of which 238 to be sent by the states and union territories and rest 12 to be nominated by the President. 

Currently there are 245 members of Rajya Sabha, the rest 5 left vacant for future adjustment.

The fourth schedule of the Constitution decides the Rajya Sabha seat allocation.

Duration of Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha

Lok Sabha - The normal duration is 5 years after which it automatically dissolves. 

However President can dissolve the Lok Sabha earlier than its stated tenure.

The period of Lok Sabha can be stretched during National Emergency.

Rajya Sabha - Continuous & Permanent Chamber not vulnerable to dissolution as the elections to it are indirect.

One-third members of the Rajya Sabha retire every second year and the seats are filled up by fresh elections and nominations by President.

Also the retiring members of the Rajya Sabha are eligible for reelection for any number of times.

When the Constitution was promulgated the duration of the tenure of the Rajya members was not decided and left at the discretion of the Parliament.

So an arrangement was made in the Representation of People Act 1951 that the tenure of a Rajya Sabha member would be 6 years.

Monday, July 24, 2017

Institution of Peshwas Under Maratha Empire

The literal meaning of Peshwa is Prime Minister.

The Peshwa rule in India started after the Marathas.

These Peshwas were initially Prime Ministers to the Maratha rulers and commanded the armies.

Their rule started in the year 1749 AD until 1818.

The original purpose of the Peshwas was to monitor the administration and military of the Maratha Empire.

They were also responsible for managing foreign affairs with other states.

After the golden period of the Maratha kingdom which was during the reign of Shivaji Maharaj none of the other Maratha rulers were competent enough to keep their empire consolidated and under control.

Therefore after his reign the Maratha power was basically controlled by the Peshwas.

The word Peshwa was first introduced in the Deccan region by the Muslim rulers.

The very first Peshwa was Moropant Trimbak Pingle who was appointed by Chhatrapati Shivaji during his reign.

The word Peshwa is derived from the Persian language which means ‘foremost’.

According to historical findings, Peshwa Sonopant Dabir was appointed to assist Shivaji by Shaji and given the power of a Prime Minister.

Ramchandra Neelkanth Bahutkar

Ramachandra Neelkanth was one of the best administrators and foreign negotiators that the Maratha Kingdom has ever had.

He was also known as Ram Chandrapant Amarthya Bavadekar.

He was appointed in the service of Chhatrapati Shivaji and was the youngest member of his Council.

He also served Chhatrapati Sambhaji, Sambhaji II and Raja Ram.

During the period of 1618 to 1699 he received the title of a king from Chhatrapati Rajaram as ‘Hukumatpanha’.

He was also the author of the famous code of civil and military administration known as ‘Ananya Patra’.

Ramchandra was also a great Warrior and helped the Maratha rulers recapture several forts from the Mughal Empire during the period of 1690 to 1694.

He was skilled in Guerrilla warfare techniques and received the support of Great Maratha Warriors like Santaji Ghorpade and Dhanaji Jadhav.

He even took part in wars during the years 1690 to 1694.

Ramchandra Neelkanth acted as a shadow king of the Maratha Empire in the absence of Chhatrapati Rajaram.

Tarabai was appointed after Ramchandra Neelkanth Bahutkar as the Maratha Peshwa.

The Bhat family of Shrivardhan

In the Konkan region the Bhat family of Shrivardhan was appointed as the Peshwas.

When Chhatrapati Shahu was the Maratha ruler he appointed Balaji Vishwanath Bhat as Peshwa in 1713 A.D.

Balaji Vishwanath Bhat was a chitpavan Brahmin and he was the first Peshwa who made the office of Peshwa, hereditary.

He was very cunning as far as diplomacy was concerned and also a great military general.

Under his leadership, he raise the Marathas from a micro minority to great power.

He was succeeded by his son Baji Rao who was also a great military leader and a diplomat just like his father.

He freed several Maratha provinces which were under the power of Mughal Supremacy and also expanded the Maratha dominance in the Deccan region.

Baji Rao I expanded the Maratha territory by including the areas of Gujarat, Malwa and parts of Bundelkhand into the empire.

The last Peshwa was Bajirao II who was defeated by the British East India Company in the third Anglo Maratha war which was fought in 1817-1818, in the battle of Khadki.

The East India Company conquered the parts of the Peshwa territories in Central Maharashtra and included them in the Bombay province.

Dispute in the Peshwas

When Chhatrapati Shahu made Baji Rao I as the Peshwa in the year 1793, he informally made the position of Peshwas hereditary.

This event was not received very well by the general Trimbak Rao Dabhade who was the commander in chief of the Maratha Army.

Trimbak was later killed in the battle of Bijapur on April 1st 1731 after which the Bhat family was given absolute control over the Maratha Empire.

Baji Rao’s son was appointed as Peshwa by Chhatrapati Shahu in the year 1740.

As the Peshwas were already imparted with significant authority to lead the Maratha army, Shahu made them his successors before his demise in the year 1749.

When the Maratha Kingdom came under the Peshwas, they called the direct descendants of Chhatrapati Shivaji as ‘swami’ which means ‘the real owner’ in Marathi.

After the death of Madhav Rao in the battle of Panipat, the Peshwas were left as only ceremonial head of state.