Sunday, March 18, 2018

Third & Fourth Anglo Mysore War & Treaty of Seringapatam

Third (3rd) Anglo Mysore War


1. Things were not very well between the British East India Company and Tipu Sultan since the end of the Second Anglo Mysore War.

2. The Treaty of Mangalore had a provision that all the prisoners of Second Anglo Mysore War would be released by both the sides but Tipu Sultan didn't honoured this provision.

3. In the same Treaty of Mangalore, there was a provision that the Britisers would not make any formal alliance with Marathas and Nizam.

4. Despite this Lord Cornwallis somehow succeeded in convincing Marathas & Nizam to stay away if a war ensues between Tipu and Britishers.

5. In 1789, the travancore ruler Dharmaraja made some fortifications in the territory which were said to be under Tipu Sultan's influence.

6. Also Dharamaraja purchased two forts from the Dutch East India Company which were located in the area of Cochin and at that point of time cochin was under the influence of Tipu.

7. Travancore at that point of time was an ally of Britishers and was doing all these things with the notion that Britishers will come to help if something goes wrong.

8. These activities of Travancore's ruler Dharmaraja had already enraged Tipu and he attacked Travancore.

9. In response to this, the forces of British East India Company attacked Tipu.

10. Tipu was not supported by Coorg, Nizam of Hyderabad and Marathas as they were kept away by the shrewd diplomacy of Lord Cornwallis.

11. The war resulted in the defeat of Tipu and the result was the Treaty of Seringapatam 1792.

Treaty of Seringapatam 1792

12. Almost half of the territories of the Mysore Sultan were confiscated which included the territories of Malabar, Dindigul, Coorg and Baramahal.

13. Britishers made Tipu Sultan to pay Rs. 3.3 crore as war indemnity.

14. The Raja of Coorg was liberated from the influence of Tipu Sultan.

15. Two sons of Tipu Sultan were kept as hostages by the Britishers to ensure that Tipu's obeys to all the terms of the Treaty of Seringapatam.


Fourth Anglo Mysore War 1798-99

Tipu Sultan sought help from Napolean and wanted Napolean to visit India but that didn't happened.

One of the commanders of the Tipu's army, named Mir Sadiq was purchased by the Britishers which bought them in an advantageous situation.

Tipu Sultan was shot and killed. 

Tipu Sultan refused the humiliating conditions which were imposed on him and declared "Its better to live one day as a lion rather than living 100 years as a jackal."

Lord Wellesley declared a war on Tipu and he was supported by Marathas and Nizam of Hyderabad.

After the death of Tipu, the Wodeyar dynasty was restored on the throne of Mysore and it became a princely state under the control of British East India Company.

Piit's India Act of 1784 Explained in Detail

Some deficiencies remained in the Regulating Act of 1773 which were sought to be removed through the Pitt's India Act of 1784.

This Act was named after Sir William Pitt who was the Prime Minister of Britain at that time.

This act for the first time separated the Political actions of the Company from their Commercial actions.

The East India Company territories in India were for the first time called as "British Possessions in India"

Pitt's India Act of 1784 was officially known as - 

An Act for the better Regulation and Management of the Affairs of the East India Company and of the British Possessions in India, and for establishing a Court of Judicature for the more speedy and effectual Trial of Persons accused of Offences committed in the East Indies

Important Facts regarding Pitt's India Act of 1784

1. Establishment of the Board of Control -

A Board of Commissioners for the Affairs of India famously known as Board of Control was established which sought to achieve the purpose of dual government in India.

Till now the British East India Company was somewhat sovereign in its political sphere but through this Pitt's Act 1784, the company was made directly subservient to the British Government.

The President of the Board of Control was the Secretary of the State.

It had all the powers to exercise control over the civil and military government and also over the revenue powers of the British East India Company.

2. The autonomous and independent powers of the presidencies of Bombay and Madras were taken away and power was vested in the presidency of Bengal in the matter of diplomacy, revenue and war.

3. All servants of the East India Company whether civil or military were asked to declare their properties to the Court of Directors. More heavy punishment was fixed for those officers who were found to be corrupt.

4. A committee was formulated to ensure the transmission of instructions of Board of Control to the Court of Directors for their implementation in India.

5. The Governor General's council was reduced from 4 members to 3 members and the Governor General was give the power of casting vote and he was made indirectly answerable to the Board of Control.

Second 2nd Anglo Mysore War Explained

Second battle of Mysore from 1780 to 1784 can be said to be an indecisive battle as it took 4 years to complete and also the final victory was not clearly towards any side.

Hyder Ali had made war treaties with both the Marathas and the Nizam of Hyderabad but neither of them were willing at that point of time to mess with British East India Company so Hyder Ali was left alone to deal with the Britishers.

The army of Hyder Ali was quite large at that point of time around 80000.

Hyder Ali in 1780 swept down the Eastern Ghats and laid the siege of British forts in Arcot before the Britishers could do anything.

In response to this, British forces started from Madras to remove the Siege of Arcot under the command of Hector Munro.

One more British force was sent from Guntur to reinforce the forces of Hector Munro under the command of Colonel William Baillie.

In order to combat these British attack, Hyder Ali himself lifted the siege of Arcot and moved on to confront the forces of Hector Munro.

Also Hyder Ali, sent his son, Tipu Sultan to Porto Novo to neutralise the reinforcement forces of Colonel William Baillie.

At Pollilur, the forces of Colonel William Baillie.were defeated badly and in response to the Hector Munro retreated back his army to Madras.

After defeating the forces of Colonel William Instead of launching a full fledged attack on Madras Hyder Ali choose to renew the Siege of Arcot.

When Warren Hastings came to know about this news he dispatched a new force under Eyre Coote to deal with Hyder Ali.

Eyre Coote's army was able to defeat Hyder Ali's army thrice at Porto Novo, Pollilur and Sholinghur however in all three instances Hyder Ali was able to withdraw his soldiers on time so that significant losses could be avoided.

Hyder Ali died in 1782 and Tipu Sultan finally concluded peace on 28th June 1784 through the Treaty of Mangalore.

Treaty of Mangalore

Through this treaty both sides agreed to restore the territories to each other's custody as they were before the war. The treaty is an important document in the history of India, because it was the last occasion when an Indian power dictated terms to the Company

Understanding the Concept of Geomorphic Processes

We all know that our Earth is not uniform and variable land forms are seen at different locations due to different reasons.

For eg. we see mountains, we see plateaus, hills, plains, ravines, cliffs etc.

Why is there so much difference in the land forms.

The reason can be explained through one phenomenon named as geomorphism or geomorphic processes.

What are Geomorphic Processes ?

Whatever we observe at the surface of the earth is due to the internal and external forces that bring in stresses both physical and chemical leading to change in configuration of the surface of the earth.

Types - (Endogenic Process and Exogenic Process)


Endogenic Process

Slow Movement (Diastrophism)

Vertical Epeirogenic/Continental Building {including both upward and downward movement}

Horizontal Orogenic/Mountain Building {including both compressive forces and tension forces}

Sudden Movement

Volcanism and Earthquake

Exogenic Forces

Weathering, Erosion & Deposition.

So basically endogenic forces are land building forces and exogenic forces are land wearing forces.

Saturday, March 17, 2018

Ecological Relationships - Oppositional & Symbiotic Relationships

Ecological Relationships are of two types - Oppositional Relationships and Symbiotic Relationships.

Oppositional Relationships are of two types - Predation and Competititon

Symbiotic Relationships are of four types - Mutualism, Commensalism, Amensalism & Parasitism.

Oppositional Relationships


Predation - In this category generally the predator feeds on the prey species by killing it. The former can deploy several tricks to kill the later whereas the later also deploys many tactics to avoid capture.

Examples - Carnivorous Predation where one animal kills and eats other like wolves hunting moose, owls hunting mice, or shrews hunting worms and insects.

Group Predation where many small carnivores hunting a large animal. For eg. many lions in group killing an elephant and then eating it.

Competition - This involves the competition among different organism/animals for limited available resources. This competition turns out to be good for one animal and bad for other. This competition can be interspecies and intraspecies also.

Examples of Intraspecies competition - 

1. Elephants also fight each other so that the dominant elephant will get to breed with the female

2. Dolphins go along together and play with each other, but when it is time to eat; all dolphins have to compete for a meal.

Examples of Interspecies Competition - 

1. A lizard and a frog compete to eat a small insect.

Symbiotic Relationships

Mutualism - It is a type of relationship in which both the parties benefit from each other.

Examples of Mutualism - 

1. A flowering plant producing nectar to attract an animal, such as a bee. The bee benefits by feeding on the nectar, while the plant benefits because the bee goes on to disperse the plant's pollen. 

2. Relationship between Bovines and bacteria within their intestines. The Bovine benefit from the cellulase produced by the bacteria, which facilitates digestion. the bacteria benefit from having a stable supply of nutrients in the host environment.

Commensalism - It is a type of relationship in which one party is benefited while there is no significant affect on the other party.

Example of Commensalism -

the cattle egret follows cattle, water buffalo, and other large herbivores as they graze. The herbivores flush insects from the vegetation as they move, and the egrets catch and eat the insects. In this relationship the egret benefits greatly, but there is no apparent effect on the herbivore.

Parasitism - In this type of relationship one party is benefited at the expense of other. One party benefits by harming the other. In this type, the species benefiting generally doesn't kills the other species which happens in the case of predation because the species benefitting in parasitim is very small in comparison to its host species.

Amensalism - It is a type of relationship in which one species is harmed with no commensurate benefit to other species.

Example of Amensalism- Animal while grazing crush the grass beneath.

Friday, March 16, 2018

Land Use in India - Fallow Land, Net & Gross Sown Land, Culturable & Unculturable Land

In India the classification of Land Use has been under several heads which we are going to understand in this article/video -

1. Total Geographical Land Mass of India - 328.73 million hectares.

2. Reported Area which can be used for actual land utilisation - 308 million hectares.

3. Net Sown Area - 142 million hectares which is 46 percent of 308 million hectares.

4. Area occupied by forests - 68.75 million hectares.

5. Breakup of Area which is not under cultivation - (Area under non-agricultural uses - 22.45 million hectares) & (Barren and un-culturable land - 19.09 million hectares)

6. Fallow Lands - (Fallow Land other than Current Fallow 9.89 million hectares) & (Current Fallows 13.33 million hectares)

7. Other Uncultivated Land Excluding Fallow Land - (Permanent pasture and other grazing land 11.04 million hectares) & (Land under misc. Tree Crops and Grooves not included in Net Area Sown 3.57 million hectares) & (Culturable Waste Land 13.94 million hectares)

8. Gross Sown/Cropped Area - 189 million hectares.

9. Net Irrigated Area - 55 million hectares

10. Gross Irrigated Area - 73 million hectares

Understanding the meaning of above breakup - 

# Land put to Non Agriculture Use - Lands occupied by buildings, roads and railways or under water, & other lands put to uses other than agriculture. 

# Barren & Unculturable Land - Land like mountains, deserts, etc. Land which cannot be brought under cultivation except at an exorbitant cost. 

# Permanent Pastures & Other Grazing Lands - all grazing lands whether they are permanent pastures and meadows or not. Village common grazing land is included under this head. 

# Land under Misc tree crops & other groves not included in net area sown - This includes all cultivable land which is not included in ‘Net area sown’ but is put to some agricultural uses. 

# Culturable Waste Land - Lands available for cultivation, whether not taken up for cultivation or taken up for cultivation once but not cultivated during the current year and the last five years or more in succession for one reason or other. The land which has potential for the development of vegetative cover and is not being used due to different constraints of varying degrees, such as erosion, water logging, salinity etc. 

# Unculturable Wasteland - The land that cannot be developed for vegetative cover, for instance the barren rocky areas and snow covered glacier areas.

# Fallow Lands other than Current Fallows - This includes all lands, which were taken up for cultivation but are temporarily out of cultivation for a period of not less than one year and not more than five years. 

# Current Fallows - This represents cropped area, which are kept fallow during the current year.

Sunday, March 11, 2018

Important Reports Published by International Organisations

1. UN Inter-agency -  Group Levels and Trends in Child Mortality Report

2. UNCTAD (United Nations Conference on Trade and Development) - World Investment Report

3. UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme) - Actions on Air Quality & Global Environment Outlook

4. Transparency International  - Global Corruption Report (GCR)

5. UNEP and INTERPOL - The Rise of Environmental Crime

6. UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) - Global education monitoring Report

7. UNFPA (United Nations Population Fund) - State of world population

8. UN-Habitat - World Cities Report

9. UNODC (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime) - World Wildlife Crime Report & World Drug Report & Global Report on Trafficking in Persons

10. UNISDR (United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction) - Global Assessment Report

11. UNIDO(United Nations Industrial Development Organization) -  Industrial Development Report

12. UNICEF (United Nations Children‘s Emergency Fund) - The State of the World‘s Children reports & Report on Regular Resources

13. UNHCR (United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees) - The Global Report

14. UNICRI (United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute) - Reports on Counterfeiting and Organized Crime

15. WEF (World Economic Forum) - Global Competitiveness Report (GCR) & Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Report & Global Information Technology Report

16. International Energy Agency - World Energy Outlook (WEO) & Southeast Asia Energy Outlook

17. OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) - OPEC Monthly Oil Market Report & World Oil Outlook

18. Sustainable Development Solutions Network (SDSN) - World Happiness Report

19. IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) - Technical Cooperation Report & Nuclear Technology Review

20. IMF (International Monetary Fund) - Global Financial Stability Report & World Economic Outlook

21. Asian Development Bank – Asian Development Outlook

22. BIS (Bank for International Settlements) - Global Financial System Report

23. FATF (Financial Action Task Force) -  Global Money Laundering Report

24. WWF (World Wildlife Fund) - The Energy Report & Living Planet Report

25. WIPO (World Intellectual Property Organization) - World Intellectual Property Report (WIPR)

26. IBRD (World Bank) - Ease of Doing Business & World Development Report

27. ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organization) - Safety Reports

28. IFPRI (International Food Policy Research Institute) - Global Hunger Index report

29. ILO (International Labour Organization) - World Social Protection Report & World Employment and Social Outlook & World of Work Report & Global Wage Report

30. Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) - Global Innovation Index

Difference between Ordinance Making Power of President and Governor

# President -

He can promulgate an ordinance only when both the Houses of Parliament are not in session or when either Lok Sabha or Rajya Sabha is not in session. An ordinance can also be promulgated by the president when only one House is in session because a law can be passed by both Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha and not one of them.

Governor -  He can promulgate an ordinance only when the legislative assembly (in case of a unicameral legislature) is not in session or (in case of SLA&SLC) when both the Houses of the state legislature are not in session or when either of the two Houses of the state legislature is not in session. The later provision implies that an ordinance can be promulgated by the governor when only one House (in case of SLA&SLC) is in session because a law can be passed by both the Houses and not by one House alone.

# President -  He can promulgate an ordinance only when he is satisfied that circumstances exist which render it necessary for him to take immediate action which is basically the satisfaction of the Centre's Council of Ministers.

Governor -  He can promulgate an ordinance only when he is satisfied that circumstances exist which render it necessary for him to take immediate action which is basically the satisfaction of the State's Council of Ministers.

# President - His ordinance-making power is similar to the legislative power of the Parliament. This means that he can issue ordinances only on those subjects on which the Parliament can make laws.

Governor -  His ordinance-making power is similar to the legislative power of the state legislature. This means that he can issue ordinances only on those subjects on which the state legislature can make laws.

# President -  Ordinance issued by him cannot make those provisions which Parliament is not empowered to do that is the limitations on the Parliament's power are also the limitations of the ordinance.

Governor -  Ordinance issued by him cannot make those provisions which State Legislative Assembly or SLA&SLC are not empowered to do that is the limitations on the SLA&SLC are also the limitations of the ordinance.

# Ordinance Making Power of the President and Governor is not their discretionary power and can be exercised only on the advice of the Centre's and State's Council of Ministers.

Both President and Governor can withdraw ordinance at any time as it is instructed to them by the Centre's and State's Council of Ministers.

# President - An ordinance issued by him should be laid before both the Houses of Parliament when it reassembles. The ordinance passed the President ceases to operate on the expiry of six weeks from the reassembly of Parliament. It may cease to operate even earlier than the prescribed six weeks, if both the Houses of Parliament passes resolutions disapproving it.

Governor -  An ordinance issued by him should be laid before the legislative assembly or both the Houses of the state legislature (in case of SLA&SLC) when it reassembles. This Ordinance issued by the Governor ceases to operate on the expiry of six weeks from the reassembly of the state legislature. It may cease to operate even earlier than the prescribed six weeks, if a resolution disapproving it is passed by the legislative assembly and is agreed to by the legislative council (in case of a bicameral legislature).

# Governor cannot promulgate an ordinance in below three cases

1. If a bill containing the same provisions would have required the previous sanction of the President for its introduction into the state legislature.
2. If he would have deemed it necessary to reserve a bill containing the same provisions for the consideration of the President.
3. If an act of the state legislature containing the same provisions would have been invalid without receiving the President’s assent.

# Presidential Ordinance can never be promulgated to amend the Indian Constitution.

Difference between President and Governor Veto Power in India

Comparison of Veto Power with regard to Ordinary Bill

# President  - Every ordinary bill, after being passed by Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha is presented to the President for his assent and he can take three steps - 
 
1. He may give his assent to the bill, the bill then becomes an act. 

2. He may withhold his assent to the bill, the bill then ends and does not become an act(Absolute Veto). 

3. He may return the bill for reconsideration of the Houses. If the bill is passed by both the Houses again with or without amendments and presented to the President for his assent, the president must give his assent to the bill. Thus the president enjoys only a ‘suspensive veto’.

Governor - Every ordinary bill, after it is passed by the legislative assembly in case of a unicameral legislature or by both the Legislative Assembly and Legislative Council in case of a bicameral legislature, is presented to the governor for his assent. In this case Governor has four alternatives - 

1. He may give his assent to the bill, the bill then becomes an act. 

2. He may withhold his assent to the bill, the bill then ends and does not become an act(Absolute Veto). 

3. He may return the bill for reconsideration of the House or Houses. If the bill is passed by the House or Houses again with or without amendments and presented to the governor for his assent, the governor must give his assent to the bill. Thus, the governor enjoys only a ‘suspensive veto’. 

4. He may reserve the bill for the consideration of the President.

# President - When a state bill is reserved by the governor for the consideration of the President, the President has three options - 

1.  He may give his assent to the bill, the bill then becomes an act. 

2.  He may withhold his assent to the bill, the bill then ends and does not become an Act. 

3.  He may return the bill for reconsideration of the House or Houses of the state legislature. When a bill is so returned, the House or Houses have to reconsider it within six months. If the bill is passed by LA or LA&LC again with or without amendments and presented to the president for his assent, the president is not bound to give his assent to the bill. He may give his assent to such a bill or withhold his assent.

Governor - When the governor reserves a bill for the consideration of the President, he will not have any further role in the enactment of the bill and now the power of consideration of the Bill rests solely with the President and Governor has nothing to do with it. Even if President sends it for the reconsideration of the SLA, after being reconsidered the Bill will directly be placed in front of the President and not the Governor.

Comparison of Veto Power with regard to Money Bill

# President - Every money bill after it is passed by the Parliament, is presented to the President for his assent. 

In this case he has 2 options - 

1. He may give his assent to the bill, the bill then becomes an act. 

2. He may withhold his assent to the bill, the bill then ends and does not become an act.

Governor - Every money bill, after it is passed by the state legislature (SLA or SLA&SLC), is presented to the governor for his assent. 

In this case Governor has three options - 

1. He may give his assent to the bill, the bill then becomes an act. 

2. He may withhold his assent to the bill, the bill then ends and does not become an act. 

3. He may reserve the bill for the consideration of the president.

# President - The President cannot return a money bill for the reconsideration of the Parliament. 

In regular terms, the president gives his assent to a money bill as it is introduced in the Parliament with his previous permission. 

When a Money Bill is reserved by the Governor for the consideration of the President, the President has two options - 

1. He may give his assent to the bill, the bill then becomes an Act. 

2. He may withhold his assent to the bill, the bill then ends and does not become an act. Thus, the President cannot return a money bill for the reconsideration of the state legislature similar to what happens in the case of Parliament.

Governor - He cannot send the Bill back to the SLA for reconsideration and he normally accords his assent to the Money Bill as it is introduced with his prior consent. 

If the Governor reserves the Money Bill for the consideration of the President his role ends.

Thursday, February 15, 2018

Ninth Schedule of Indian Constitution & IR Coelho Case

Ninth Schedule of the Indian Constitution was enacted in 1951 to save the laws made by the government from the scrutiny of the judiciary.

Ninth Schedule of the Indian Constitution was brought in through the 1st Amendment Act 1951 along with Article 31B of Indian Constitution.

The utility of Article 31B of Indian Constitution is that it saves acts and regulations included in Ninth Schedule of the Constitution from Judicial scrutiny.

This Ninth Schedule was important specially in post-independence era as laws relating to land reforms/abolition of Zamindari system and other such laws which aimed at bringing social equity were included in it.

The government was very much active to bring in Nationalization of land assets, taking away excess of land from the Zamindars and providing them to economically and socially oppressed.

However this was very much clear that these laws will be nullified by the Judiciary as at that point of time these were laws were in direct contravention of the Constitutional text.

So the government bought in Article 31a and 31b of the Constitution which allowed the government to such legislations from judicial scrutiny.

However Ninth Schedule in a matter of time became an arena of excesses of the Legislature in the following manner - 

Since the First Amendment, the Ninth Schedule has been relied upon to amend the constitution multiple times over. The 4th amendment inserted six acts to the 9th schedule. The 17th amendment added 44 more acts. The 29th amendment brought in 2 acts from Kerala. The 34th amendment in 1974 added 20 more land tenure and land reforms laws enacted by the states.

In 1975, Indira Gandhi’s infamous abuse of executive power leading up to emergency saw the 39th amendment adding cer­tain central enactments. 1976 saw the 40th amendment even more to the 9th schedule. The 47th amendment in 1984 added more, and then in 1990 the 66th amendment gave more protection to land ceiling acts.

The 76th amendment to accommodate Tamil Nadu Government’s legislation to provide for reservations to the level of 69 percent for SC/ST and OBCs followed. What takes the cake however is the 78th amendment, which was about not just immunity to laws in 9th schedule, which was suspect, but amendments to those laws and making those amendments immune. Since then there were absurd laws from Sugarcane supporting price to the New Delhi Urban Zoning Laws all clamoring for an exalted spot in the much abused Ninth Schedule.

Supreme Court Judgement in I.R.Coelho Case 2007


However in a major turnaround in 2007, the Supreme Court in I.R. Coelho case ruled that there can be no unrestricted immunity for laws mentioned in the Ninth Schedule. Yogesh Kumar Sabharwal was the Chief Justice of India at this time.

The Court ruled that Judicial Review forms a Basic Feature of Indian Constitution and it will apply to acts and regulations included in the Ninth Schedule too.

But the subjection of Ninth Schedule to Judicial Review was restricted to those regulations which were included in the Ninth Schedule after 24th 1973.

So all acts, regulations and laws included in the Ninth Schedule after 24th April 1973 are open to challenge in court if they violated Fundamental Rights guaranteed under the Articles 14, 15, 19 and 21 or the ‘basic structure’ of the Constitution.