Thursday, February 23, 2017

Important Features of Presidential Form of Government in today's World

Introduction

The Presidential Form of Government is a system where the President is the head of Government as well as the State. The United States of America is a very good example where this form of government is in use. Countries featuring this form of government are not the exclusive users of the title President. Like for instance the Dictator might or might not be popular or legitimately elected but may be called by the name President.

Features of Presidential Form of Government

Contrary to the Indian Constitution, the Constitution of America prefers the Presidential Form of Government. The features of this type of government are mentioned under the following headings -

The President of America is both head of the Government as well as of the State. He occupies a ceremonial place being the head of the State. The President performs the function of the executive organ of the government as the head of the Government.

The President is elected for a fixed time period of four years by the process of Electoral College. He can only be removed from his office by Congress on the grounds of impeachment for grave unconstitutional acts.

The President is assisted by a body of Cabinet which is a small body of members known as “Kitchen Cabinet”. It comprises of non elected departmental secretaries and performs the function of advising the President only. The President can appoint the members of Kitchen Cabinet and can be removed by him only.

The President does not possess any kind of membership in the Congress and hence cannot be compelled to attend its sessions. As such the President as well as his secretaries is not responsible to the Congress for any act of omission or commission.

The Lower House of Representative otherwise known as House of Representatives cannot be dissolved by the President.

The doctrine of separation of powers works on the basis of Presidential System in America. The judicial, executive and legislative powers of government are separate from one another and are vested in 3 independent organs of government.

There are many advantages or merits of the Presidential Form of Government. The same is discussed under the following headings below -

Direct Elections - In this form of government, the President is directly elected by popular voting method like for instance Electoral College in USA. In this method, the President receives a personal mandate for leading the country. It clearly means that the President can be elected independently by the legislative branch.

Separation of Powers - Since the executive is separated from the judiciary, there is a clear advantage of this form of government. No one criticizes the work of another and there is harmony and good relationship between the two organs.

Speed and Decisiveness - This form of government responds rapidly to emerging and burning situations in the country. The President is never restrained in taking actions and proper decisions can be taken without any kind of external influence. He can easily take bold and prompt decisions and his ministers cannot tie hands because they have to implement the decisions of the President.

Stability - This government is able to survive emergencies and is great at maintaining stability in the country. Any country is better off being led by the President who has a fixed term rather than rotating premiership. Since election is fixed, this system is considered a welcome check by the supporters on the powers of executive.

People’s President - Since the President is directly elected by the people of the country, s/he has ample reasons to think that he can enjoy more of the confidence of the people and support as compared to the Prime Minister in the Parliamentary form of government.

More Efficient - The President has complete freedom in selecting his cabinet ministers without any kind of external influence. The Senate may ratify against such kind of appointment but it cannot impose the choice on the President. Hence the Head of the State does not have any problems in electing competent people who would in turn discharge their duties in an efficient manner.

National Unity and Integrity - The President of the country is the symbol of national unity and integrity. He is able to forge unity in the nation that comprises of diverse regions, cult and committees. At the same time, the Presidential Form of Government is able to establish stability in the multiparty system.