Monday, July 28, 2014

The Third Stage (1870-1914) of Industrial Revolution

The third stage of the Industrial Revolution, that covered the period 1870-1914, also witnessed some great inventions, which further accelerated the pace of the revolution. The construction activities in the spheres of railways and steel recorded further advancement during 1870-1914. By 1914 almost entire Britain was covered with railways network, while further progress was achieved in bringing out more efficient methods of steel production.

The invention of electricity gave great impetus to the Industrial Revolution. The electrification process in factories further hastened the Industrial Revolution.
Yet it was in the realm of transport and communication that incredible things happened. Besides the starting process made in railways, this period saw the coming of the Age of BICYCLE, of MOTOR CAR, of electricity-driven TRAMS and TRAINS, of modern SHIPS, of TELEPHONE and WIRELESS TELEGRAPH, and of AEROPLANES. And it must be noted that the period also witnessed building of vastly-improved roads. The bicycle came into wide use after its invention in 1885. It was followed by the invention of tyre by J.B. DUNLOP in 1888, which gave rise to the industry.

The petrol-run engine to drive a motor car was a German invention, the work of GATT DAMIER and CARL BENZ, and the first vehicle was successfully driven in 1885. By the end of 1904 there were nearly 20,000 motor cars in Britain. The British car manufacturing company, the Rolls-Royce, came into existence in 1906, and the German company, Mercedes-Benz, in 1908. The use of oil as a fuel in cars and ships, promoted by the German scientist. Diesel, was an important innovation.

From the foregone discussion of all three stages of Industrial Revolution it is clear that technological innovations from 1767 to 1914 stood both as factors and outcome of the Industrial Revolution.


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