Saturday, September 27, 2014

Important Facts about major rivers of Africa Continent

1. River Nile - Mainly flowing in Egypt, it is the longest river (6695 km.) of the world. It originates from Victoria Lake located in Equatorial region and falls into Mediterranean Sea. Khartoum city of Sudan is located on the confluence of White Nile and Blue Nile and this marks the beginning of River Nile. It has several cataract. Many big dams are – Over Dam (Uganda), Sennar Dam (Sudan) and Aswan Dam (Egypt). Cairo and Alexandria cities are located on its banks. Nile Valley is very famous for cultivation of fine cotton. 

2. River Zaire (Congo) - It is the second longest river of Africa and largest river of Africa in terms of drainage basin. Crossing the Equator it twice. Kasai and Ubangi are its major tributaries. Half of world’s diamond is obtained from Kasai basin. On River Zaire, two big waterfalls viz. ‘Stanley’ and Livingstone’ are located. ‘Inga Dam’ is made on this river. It has the highest hydel power potential in the world. Its basin is covered with dense Equatorial forests. Pygmies reside in this river basin. Several of the Pygmy tribes, like-Tswa, Babinga, Bonga, Mabuti and Twa live in these forests. 
3. River Zambezi - It originates from Katanga Plateau and falls into Indian Ocean. World famous Victoria Waterfall is located on it and Kariba Dam is constructed on Lake Kariba. In Mozambique ‘Kobora Bassa Dam’ is made on this river. It make the political boundary between Zambia and Zimbabwe. It flows in a Rift Valley. 

4. River Niger - Originating from Loma Mountain (Sierra Leone) and draining into Gulf of Guinea, it is the third largest river of Africa. Port Harcourt city is located on its delta. Due to very high transportation of mineral oil and palm oil, it is also called “Oil River”. Famous ‘Kainji Dam’ is constructed on it. The cities of Bamko (Mali), Niamey (Niger) and Tombouctou (Mail) are located along its banks. It is a perennial river. 

5. River Orange - Originating from Drakensberg Mountain, it falls into Atlantic Ocean. River Vall is its major tributary. It is the longest river of South Africa, Agurebeez Fall is located on this river. It makes the natural boundary between South Africa and Namibia. There are rich alluvial diamond beds at the mouth of the river. 

6. Blue Nile - This is one of the principle Headwaters of the River Nile. It rises in Lake Tana in the Ethiopian Highlands. In Sudan, it meets the white Nile at Khartoum. The Rosier Dam close to the Ethiopian border supplies the greater part of Sudan’s hydroelectric power.

7. River Chari - Mainly flowing in Chad, it is a seasonal river. It drains into Lake Chad and presents an example of inland drainage. 

8. River Limpopo - This river originates from Rand region of South Africa and crossing Tropic of Capricorn twice during its flow. It separates South Africa from Botswana and Zimbabwe. It drains into the Indian Ocean. It has high potential of hydel electricity. 

9. River Senegal - It originates from Fouta Djallon and drains into North Atlantic Ocean. It mainly flows in Senegal. It is important for navigation. 

10. Shabelle and Juba Rivers-  These originated from Ethiopian Highlands and drains into Indian Ocean. They flow in Ethiopia and Somalia. Many small multi-purpose projects are made on these rivers. 

11. River Rufiji - In Eastern Africa, it is the largest river of Tanzania which flows in its southern part. It has high potential for irrigation and hydel power development.

12. River Ruvuma - This river, which forms boundary between Tanzania and Mozambique, makes many cataracts. Therefore, it is navigable upto Upinda Falls only through small boats.

13. River Okavango - Originate from Angola and falls into marshy parts of Botswana. It makes boundary between Namibia and Angola. 

14. River Volta - Rising from Burkina Highland, it is a river of western African flowing through central Ghana. The river has been dammed, creating Lake Volta which is one of the world’s largest man made lake. This lake is used for navigation, fishing, irrigation and generation of hydro-electricity which serves the large local aluminium industry.

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