Saturday, December 20, 2014

Major Mountain Ranges of the World and their Location - World Geography

1. Great Dividing Range: It is situated in Australia and spreads from Cape York Peninsula (Queensland) to Victoria and further through Bass Strait to Tasmania. It is an example of folded mountain. It is considered to be a major source of minerals, wood, water and hydel power. It also works as a water divider. Murray and Darling, the perennial rivers of Australia, have their source in the Great Dividing Range. ‘Mt. Kosciusko’ is its highest peak. 

2. Atlas Mountain: Divided into six parallel ranges-Anti-Atlas, High-Atlas, Middle-Atlas, Rif-Mountains, Tell-Atlas and Sahara Atlas, it is an important mountain range of Africa. They are parallel to each other. Atlas Mountain lies in Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia. Highest peak of Atlas ‘Toubkal (4165 m) is part of great Atlas Mountain. Built in Alpine orogeny period. It is an example of young folded mountain. 

3. Drakensberg Mountain: Situated in South Africa and made due to Volcanocity, it is a form of scrap. River Orange originates from here. Various types of metallic minerals are found in this old mountain region, like-Gold, Uranium. 

4. Bobbi-Nimbus Mountain: : It is a major mountain region of Sierra Leone and Liberia. This mountain has been worn out. It has huge reserves of Iron-Ore.

5. Andes Mountain: It is the world’s longest mountain (8000 Km) china, which spreads across 7 South America countries. After Himalaya, it is the world’s second highest mountain system. Its maximum width (640 km) is in Bolivian region. Its highest peak is ‘Aconcagua’. Many of the world’s famous active and extinct volcanoes are found in this mountain, like-Cotopaxi, Chimborazo etc. it has high diversity in vegetation due to its great latitudinal extent. The vegetation found in its eastern part is called ‘Montana’. 

6. Appalachian Mountain: Lying in eastern part of U.U.S., it is relict of an ancient fold mountain. It was built during Caledonian Orogeny period. It has many small mountain ranges, like-poconos Mountain, Allegheny Mountain, Blue Ridge and Great Smoky Range. It is world famous for coal reserves. Therefore, the nearby regions have got encouragement for industrialization. Green Mountain and White Mountain are its other extended parts. Mt. Mitchell (2037 m) is its highest peak. 

7. Asir Mountain: It is situated in the Southwest of Saudi Arabia running paralleled to the Coast of the Red Sea. Its highest peak is the Jebal Abha which is 3133 m above the sea level. Abha is a beautiful hill station and modern planned city in the Asir Mountain. 

8. Fair Weather Mountain: This Mountain lies in North America on the frontier between Alaska and British Columbia. Its slopes are covered by the coniferous trees. 

9. Hindu Kush: This is a young folded mountain range of the Tertiary Period stretching over Afghanistan and the North Western Frontier Province of Pakistan. Its highest peak, Tirich Mir, is 7690m above the sea level. 

10. Mount Sinai: It is a desert mountain of Egypt. It is part of Asia. It is an example of ‘Horst Mountain’. It is holy mountain for Jewish. 

11. Katanga Mountain: It is situated in Zaire and Zambia. It is a major copper and diamond producing region of both the countries. 

12. Edison Dake Mountain: It is situated between Lake Ontario and Gulf of St. Lawrence in Canada. It is connected to Canadian Shield. This mountain is rich in Iron-Ore (Magnesite). 

13. Ural Mountain: It is lying in Siberia region of Russia in north-south direction. It forms natural boundary between Asia and Europe. Its average height is 800 to 500 m, because it is an ancient relict mountain. The highest peak of this mountain range is Mt. Narodnaya (1984 m) Nizhni Tagil, Chelyabinsk and Magnitogorsk located on slope of Ural Mountain. Huge reserves of iron-ore are found here. Its nearby regions have experienced high industrial development. 

14. Alaska Range: It is lying in north-western of Pacific Mountain ranges. It has spread similar to the shape of coastline. Its average height is more than 5000 m ‘Mt. Mackinley’ located here is the highest peak of North America. It is young folded mountain range of the Tertiary Period. 

15. Coast Range: It spreads along the Pacific coast from north to south. It is characterized by high seismic activity and volcanic eruption. The name of its highest peak is ‘Mt. Waddington’, whose height is 4042 m. Its lower slopes along the Pacific Ocean are inhabited by Red Indian. 

16. Brooks Range: It is lying in Alaska in the forms of extension of Rocky Mountain range in north-western direction. Its average height is more than 2450m. ‘Chamberlaine Peak’ (2749 m) is a highest point. It is rich in metallic and nonmetallic minerals. Several of its peaks remain covered with snow throughout the year. Some of its slopes are known for winter sports. 

17. Mackenzie Mountain: It lies near the Arctic Ocean coast in north-south direction in Canada. 

18. Wasatch Range: It is situated in Utah province of U.S. It is an ideal example of Block Mountain. 

19. Alps Mountain: Alps Mountain range is a most important in Europe which determines border between France-Switzerland. France-Italy, Switzerland-Italy and Italy-Austria countries. It is a young folded mountain. ‘Mt. Blanc’ situated in French Alps is its highest peak. The passes found here are used for transport, like-Barner, Saint Bernard and Saint Godhai. In it, waterfalls, geysers and glaciers are found in large numbers. There are used to produce geothermal energy for the industries of Italy. Tourism has developed here a lot. The Alps are the source of many important rivers of Europe, among which the Rhine, Rhone, Po and Drava (Danube) are important. 

20. Ore Mountain: Situated on the border of Germany and Czech Republic, it is rich in metallic and nonmetallic minerals. Its highest peak ‘Klenovec’ is 1244m above the sea level. It is covered with lush green vegetation. 

21. Apennine Mountain: It extends from western Alps to the southern point of Italy. It is mainly an example of limestone mountain. It is world famous for wine production because Grapes are cultivated in large amount on its slopes. Many small river originate from here. It is also Italy’s watershed. Its superior marble of different colours has international market. There are several active, dormant and extinct volcanoes in this ranges. Ex-Mt. Vesuvius. 

22. Pyrenees Mountain Range: It lies along the southern border of France in east-west direction. It forms natural boundary between France and Spain. ‘Andorra’ nation is situated on this mountain range. ‘Pico D Aneto’ (3404m) is its highest peak. It is example of young folded mountain. It has several glaciers on its northern slope and several hill resorts, like-Pico de Aneto, Gouffre de la, Pierre St. Martin and Grotte Costeret have been developed in the Pyrenees. 

23. Sierra Morena and Sierra Nevada: These two mountain ranges lies in southern part of Spain. ‘River Guadalquivir’ flows between these mountain ranges. Spain’s highest peak ‘Mulhacen’ (3478 m) is located in Sierra Nevada. Spain’s famous Andalusian Plain lies in the nearly region. 

24. Kjollen Mountain: It lies in north-south direction along the border of Norway and Sweden. It is a major watershed between the two countries. This mountain is covered with Taiga forests. Many small river originate from here which are very important for hydel power production. Ume, Torne etc. are major river originating from here. 

25. Pennine Mountain: It is situated in central part of Britain in north-south direction. This mountain is a region of high quality Coal. Therefore, many big industrial centres have developed in the surrounding regions. Dudley, Walsall, Cocktree, Leicestershire etc. are major coal regions. 

26. Rockies Mountain: Extending from north to south in western part of North America. It is young folded Mountain. Extending from Alaska to Mexico, it is 4800 km in length. It has several parallel ranges. The western part of Rocky Range is a province containing plateau, basins, canyons and desert. ‘Mt. Mckinley’ (Alaska Range) is its highest peak. Famous ‘Chinook’ winds flow along its eastern slopes which have great influence on the Prairies Plains. The main rivers originating from the Rockies are Missouri, Colorado and Columbia. 

27. Vosges Mountain: It is situated in France and it separates France and Germany. It is an example of block mountain. It is made of ancient rocks. These are remnant of mountain of Hercynian period. Rhine River flows in its Rift Valley. Its lower slopes are utilized for the cultivation of Grapes which are used for the manufacturing of French Wines and Champagne. 

28. Black Forest: It is situated in Germany and it separates France and Germany. It is an example of block mountain. World famous ‘River Rhine’ flows in the Rift Valley of Vosges-Black forest. There are made of ancient rocks and are remnant of mountain of Hercynian Period. It is covered with evergreen coniferous forests. 

29. Cantabrian Mountain: Situated in northern part of Spain, it lies in east=west direction. It is an example of Pre-Cambrian Mountain. It is famous for the production of high quality of Iron-Ore. 

30. Carpathian Mountain: It is situated in Poland, Ukraine and Romania from north-west of south-east direction. It is an example of young folded mountain which was formed during Tertiary Period. Hungarian Plains lies to its west. It forms boundary between Poland and Slovakia. ‘Mt Tetra’ is its highest peak. 

31. Caucasus Mountain: it is situated between Black Sea and Caspian Sea. It separates Europe and Asia. ‘Mt. Elbrus’ (5642m) is its highest peak, which is also the highest peak of Europe. It is young folded mountain. The gentle slopes of the Caucasus are known for the orchards of citrus fruits and tea plantation.

32. Altai Mountain: This is a young folded mountain system of central Asia that extends eastward from Kazakhstan to west part of Mongolia and northern part of China. The important rivers of Siberia moving from south to the Arctic Ocean, like-Irtysh and Ob Rivers, originate in the Altai. 

33. Arakan Yoma: It is western mountain range of Myanmar, whose spread is towards south direction. It was built during Tertiary Period due to the folding of sedimentary rocks. Its slope is steep towards India and average towards Myanmar basin. Its highest peak is ‘Mt. Victoria’ (3109 m) it is covered with Tropical rain forests. 

34. Dinaric Alps: It is lying parallel to along the Adriatic Sea coast in north-south direction. It is an young folded mountain of Tertiary Period. It is made of limestone. Various types of Karst landforms are found in it. 

35. Mt. Etna: It is a volcanic mountain located on Sicily Island of Italy. It is an example of parasitic volcanic cone. 

36. Taurus Mountain: Starting from Armenian knot, it moves towards southern part of Turkey and after forming the southern boundary of Anatolia Plateau, it has gone upto Aegean Sea. Its average height is 3735 m. 

37. Pontic Mountain: It lies to the west of Armenian knot, which has spread in northern Turkey along the southern coast of Black Sea in Sea in east-west direction. There is a narrow plain region between Pontic Mountain and Black Sea. It is young folded mountain. 

38. Zagros Mountain: The Zagros Mountain Situated in southern part of Iran is westward extension of Kirthar and Makran Mountains. Their height is 3500m. It is very wide mountain range. The plateau of Iran lies to its north. ‘Kirman’ and ‘Koum’ towns are located along the foothills of Zagros Mountain. Most of Iran’s oil field lie along the western foothills of the central Zagros Mountain. Its highest peak is ‘Zark-Koh’ (4548 m). 

39. Catskill Mountain: It is the northern extension of Appalachian Mountain in the south-western part of New York State of U.S.A. It ecosystem have been maintained in a healthy and resilient. 

40. Golan Heights: This is a mountain range along the border of Syria and Israel. This territory of Syria was occupied by Israel in the war of 1967 and annexed in 1981. This is barren but the great strategic importance. 

41. Elburz Mountain: Hindukush Mountain is known as Elburz Mountain in the west. It takes a crescent shape along with the southern coast of Caspian Sea. It is a bend mountain with steep slopes. At 56oE longitude, Elburz is seen in the form of high plateau. ‘Kopet Dagh’ range lies to its east which has spread in Iran and Turkmenistan. ‘Damavand’ is its highest (5601 m) peak. 

42. Sulaiman-Kirthar-Bugtai Mountain: These are situated in Afghanistan-Pakistan border and starting from Pamir they are lying in north-south direction. These are comparatively less high. They have many passes, among which Khyber, Bolon, Gomal and Tochi passes are famous. 

43. Himalaya Mountain: It is world’s highest mountain range, which starts from Pamir knot and moves in west-east direction. It forms boundary of India, Nepal and Bhutan with China. It acts as an influential watershed and political and economic separator between India and China. It has many high peaks, like-Mt. Everest (8850m). it is an young folded mountain which is still gaining height. 

44. Kunlun Mountain: This mountain range, after starting from ‘Pamir Knot’ moves in eastern direction. Its average height is more than 5100m. It is divided into two parts towards the east. First Altai Tang and second Tsinling Mountain. It is an example of young folded mountain. Its highest peak is ‘Muztagh’ (7723 m). 

45. Tien Shan Mountain (Heavenly Mountains): After starting from Pamir knot, it moves in north-east direction and determines the boundary of Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan with China. Like Himalayas, average height is 6000m. it has huge reserves of Coal, Rock Salt and metals. It highest peak ‘Pik Pobeda (7349m). Its slopes are covered by the pine and conifer trees. The nomadic tribes, like kirghiz practice transhumance in these mountains. 

46. Pegu Yoma Range: It is lying to the east of Arakan Yoma in Myanmar in north-south direction, which is a watershed between Irrawaddy and Sittang Valleys. ‘Mt. Popa’ located in it is an extinct volcano. 

47. Mt. Stromboli: It is located near Sicily on Lipari Island. It is an example of mixed cone volcano. It is called as “Light House of the Mediterranean Sea” . 

48. Pindus Alps: It is small mountain range situated in Greece, which is an example of young folded mountain. It is made of limestone. In recent years, the forests here have faced huge damage due to natural fire. 

49. Mt. Vesuvius: It is a volcanic mountain located in Naples in Italy. It is an example of dormant volcano. Due to volcanic explosion in 79 AD the ‘Pompeii’ city located here was washed out. 

50. Blue Mountain: This is a part of the Great Dividing Range in New South Wales State of Australia. The mountain appears blue because of fine droplets of oil that are dispersed from the eucalyptus trees causing the blue light rays of the sun to be scattered mare effectively. 

51. Harz Mountain: These mountain lies in central Germany. These mountain are rich in metallic and nonmetallic minerals. The people living in these mountains are traditional, representing typical German culture. 

52. Verkhoyansk Range: It is lying in Siberia region of Russia along the coast of River Lena. This mountain range separates Central Siberian plateau from East Siberian region. It is a part of Caledonian – Hercynian Orogeny. 

53. Great Khingan Mountain: Altai Tang, after going in the north direction is known as ‘Great Khingan’. It extends upto River Amur. It forms boundary between East Mongolia and Manchuria. 

54. Yablonovy Range and Stanovoy Range: These are lying in East Siberian region to the north-east of Altai Mountain Range. These are old folded mountains. There are made of Caledonian-Hercynian Orogeny. 

55. Fuzoku Mountain: Situated on Honshu Island of Japan, it is an example of volcanic mountain. Sulphuric smoke comes out of it. Therefore, the Japanese consider it to be hell. A long chain of volcanic cones is found near this mountain. 

56. Jura Mountain: It is situated in France. It forms boundary between France and Switzerland. Limestone rocks are found here. Further, it extends into Germany, where it is known as ‘Nuremberg’. The Jurassic Period of Mesozoic Era has derived its name from this mountain. 

57. Flinders Mountain: Situated in South Australia Province of Australia, it is a block and rugged mountain. Some fossils from Pre-Cambrian period onwards are safety preserved here. It is divided into two range-Barrier and Grey Ranges. 

58. Henry Mountain: It is located in Utah Province of U.S. it is the best example of laccolith mountain.

59. Hamersley Range: Located in Western Australia Province of Australia, it is an example of Paleozoic Mountain. This range is rich in Iron-Ore. 

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