Friday, December 19, 2014

Public Administration as Political science or Public law and a means of change

Ques.17. “Public Administration is not just implementation of laws, it is also a means of social justice and social change”. Comment. 

Ans. If we focus on the evolution of Public Administration we will find that from 1887 to 1968 the field of public administration has focused mainly on efficient implementation of law. It was only after the 1st Minnowbrook conference of 1968 that special emphasis was provided to the values of equity and social change with the advent of the doctrine of New Public Administration. After the finish of Second World War in 1945, most of the colonized countries of Africa and Asia gained independence gradually. One of the major problems of these countries after gaining independence was chronic poverty and social backwardness so in these countries not only efficient implementation of law was required but also measures and schemes were needed to be implemented which would bring social justice and change for the poor population of these third world countries. One example of this was the implementation of Directive Principles of State Policy in the Constitution of India and its subsequent endorsement by the Supreme Court in various cases.

Next in line was the principle of NPM (1991-2000) which advocated the concept of Good governance which enlarged the scope of social change and social justice.

Almost every country of this World are running schemes to bring in social justice and change. In India schemes like MNREGA, Jan Dhan Yojana, reservations in jobs and educational institutes for backward classes etc. have helped our society to get themselves rid of social injustice and democracy. PM’s 15 Point programme, Rajiv Awas Yojana, JNNURM, Mid day meal, Sarva Shikhsha Abhiyan, Ajeevika, Indira Awas Yojana, PMGSY, Integrated Child Development Services etc. are some programmes started to achieve social justice and change.

We can easily sum up that if we are not going to provide support through above programmes to the poor populace there would be chronic unemployment and poverty and the already poor population of our country will further be marginalized. More poverty will lead to more frustration may lead to more violence. So we can see that if social change and social justice are not brought about implementation of law may become difficult and sometimes futile also. 

Ques.18. “The study of Public Administration developed as an off shoot of political science or public law, and until recently administration as an academic subject was the very plain stepsister of these older disciplines Peter Self. Examine.

Ans. Public Administration means Government administration and as everything at the start was done by Government in it so it was considered as a subpart of political science or public law. Even in texts like Shanti Parv of Mahabharata, Kautilya’s Arthashastra, the Prince of Machiavelli and the Republic of Plato the field of Public Administration has been shown in political terms –

It was in 1887 after the Publication of the study of Administration of Wilson PA started to get its status as a distinct discipline. Similar views were echoed by Goodnow.

During the IIIrd and IVth stage, PA was suffering from identity crises as individually it was not able to justify scientifically and in totality the theories propounded by scholars of second stage and it was consistently facing challenges from theories put forward in IIIrd and IVth stage. The reason of this identity crises was that PA was still working on basis of rules and ideologies derived from the field of political science and public law.

It was only with the advent of NPM in 1991 that PA became multidisciplinary in approach and included the study of many other field including political science and public law.

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