Sunday, December 14, 2014

Universal Health Care, Asia Pacific Declaration on Women Rights, E auction of Coal Blocks, Medileaks Launched, SECC 2011, Insider Trading Norms changed by SEBI, Computerized Pilot Selection System

#Some facts and stats about Universal Health Care and its significance in Indian context-

Steps needed to increase the effects of Universal Health Care in India

(a) Primary, Secondary and Tertiary health care system should be amalgamated in one that is integrated approach of providing health care services should be adopted. This integrated approach reduces the over all cost of the actual treatment provided. This concept is also known by the name of “MANAGED CARE" concept. By adopting this approach private sector can also be called in to play their role and private sector will find this “managed care” concept more beneficial for them because a fixed amount will be provided to them per year under the “MANAGER CARE” concept so they will focus on rational treatment and cost effective model.

Note: Fragmentation of health care services can lead to soaring health care prices which is currently happening in the U.S.

(b) Hospitalization should be separated from primary care. It is being said that of the total patients only 2.5% or less need to be hospitalized which means that 97.5% of the patients can be treated on the primary care level. The above stats are benchmarked in order to fix the definition of UHC (Universal Health Care). It has been seen that many patients who could be treated at the primary care level ended up being hospitalized due to lack of timely treatment, inadequate manpower and unskilled doctors etc. The presently available infrastructure is not adequate to handle the hospitalization of even 2.5% of the patients. This needs to be improved and extensive and economical primary care health facilities should be made available.

(c) Health care policies should be aimed keeping in mind the full population of the country and not just the poor people of our country. All the sections of Indian population including the middle class should be extended the benefits of health policies. One reason of doing this can be that middle lass is in a much better position to held the Government accountable for their policy actions when compared to the Below Poverty Line populace.

(d) A properly and carefully planned integrated approach should be adopted when dealing with the task of dealing with the below two objectives –

(i) Core health care
(ii) General health care.

Core health care deals with specific disease suffering problems and curing them where general health deals with preventive measures such as providing good sanitation facilities, adopting healthy life styles etc.

A problem faced while dealing with the above two problem is that while dealing with core health care things can be centralized but when dealing with general health care then centralization becomes difficult as its ambit falls under several ministries. So it becomes important to adopt an integrated approach when dealing with both the objectives as solving the second one proactively will automatically solve the first one upto a large extent.

#Asia Pacific declaration on women rights has been adopted on 20th November 2014. The main objectives of this declaration were.

(a) Social institutions should be empowered.

(b) Subject of gender equality should be a concern for all Governments and should be committed to.

(c) The Beijing declaration goals should be assessed and reviewed.

Some happenings at the declaration that disappointed the social activists –

(a) Subject of Sexual rights of women was totally ignored because from some countries objection to this subject was put forward.

(b) “Gender discrimination due to caste” – This phrase was replaced by the word social origin in place of the word caste. This step to remove the word caste was taken by India.

(c) The word armed conflict has been changed to conflict.

(d) The sexual rights of the women have not been acknowledged in this declaration in the women and health section whereas these rights were present in Beijing declaration 1995 (Section 96). Instead only reproductive rights of all individuals have been mentioned in this declaration.

(e) Major Issues like date rape, cyber crime/on-line crime and sexual crime/assault/ molestation in the education institutions are not present in the declaration.

World conferences on women that have taken place till now –

International Women’s tear, Mexico City 1975
Second World Conference on Women, Copenhagen 1980
Third World Conference on Women, Nairobi, 1985
Fourth World Conference on Women, Beijing, 1995

#The Supreme Court has directed the Maharashtra Government to pay a cash compensation of Rs 20 lakh to all those 26 students who were not allowed admission through the examination conducted by the Association of the Management of Unaided private medical and Dental Colleges, Maharashtra. On the basis of the findings of the Committee that was constituted by the Maharashtra Government to conduct an enquiry on the same, this order was given. The Committee found that admissions were granted to less meritorious students. The SC has also said that the compensation amount should be recovered from the guilty offices in charge.

#UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme) sets target to save this World from global climate catastrophe-

A recent report of UNEP has said that in order to prevent irreversible climate changes and prevent a global environment catastrophe following 2 targets should be met –

Reducing Carbon Dioxide emissions to zero by 2070.
Reducing Carbon Dioxide and all green house gas emission to zero by 2100.

Note: On 20th November 2014, the South Korea based GCF (Green Climate fund) has received around $9.3 billion. This amount would be utilized for helping the poor countries of the World in reducing their green house gas emissions and will help them in tacking global warming.

#India and China to counter each other in South Pacific Ocean – 

Indian and Chinese leaders are set to reach Fiji in order to expand their sphere of influence -

(a) India supported the Fiji Indian community during the military rule time in Fiji by imposing economic sanctions and by highlighting their problems in the United Nations and the Common Wealth and it was because of the Indian stance that during the General elections of Fiji in 2014, democracy returned to the island country.

(b) India has good relations with Papua New Guinea, Kiribati, Soloman Islands, Tonga, Fiji, Vanautu, Nauru and many other small island countries of Southern Pacific Ocean.

(c) Mr. Modi visit to Fiji will be 33 years after the visit of Mrs. Indira Gandhi and the timing of the visit is more appropriate as India needs to counter through its diplomacy another strings of Pearls strategy of China.

(d) India needs to make its relations more strong with those countries by making investments in the region in those domains in which we have technological superiority and commercial edge.

#E-auction of the coal blocks that have been cancelled by the Supreme Court will take place in February 2015.

# The Government has said that the Lokpal Act and the Delhi Special Police Establishment Act would be amended to make some necessary long needed changes. Detailed changes would be stated by the author of this blog after the said amendment is done.

#State of the art police control room has been opened in Lucknow and Chief Minister Mr. Akhilesh Yadav has said that more advanced police control rooms would be opened in all big cities of Uttar Pradesh.

Question: What is State of the Art?

It means highest level of development as of a device, technique or scientific field, achieved at a particular time.

#A new website Medileaks has been launched to facilitate whistle blowers to point out the alleged malpractices’ and irregularities in the health care system of our country. The uses can post the information anonymously. After the information is being posted on the website a team of volunteers will verify its genuineness and after that it will be shared on the Medileaks portal.

It is definitely a good idea but still some experts are not sure about how the genuineness of a case of medical negligence will be verified keeping in view the fact that a considerable amount of complaints currently lodged in the consumer courts are in relation to medical negligence by health experts and facilities.

#ISRO won the Indira Gandhi Prize for Peace, Disarmament and Development for 2014.

#In the wake of an Indian citizen showing positive signs of Ebola virus present in his semen proves that if that person is going to make sexual contact with someone he is going to transmit that virus to the other person. So the Union Ministry of Health and Family Welfare has advised that like Australia, a complete ban should be imposed on person travelling from affected countries to India. Health Ministry has recently requested Ministry of External Affairs to talk to countries suffering from Ebola outbreak and request them so that they in their turn issue an advisory to the people who contracted Ebola but are cured now to not to travel out of their country for a period of 90 days after getting cured.

Note: A patient who first contracted Ebola but cured afterwards if tests positive in Ebola virus semen test than he can transfer the Ebola disease through sexual contact with another person for a period of 90 days as semen is also a body fluid.

#A short note on Social Economic Caste Census 2011- 

SECC is being conducted by the Government of India with help from Rural Development Ministry

Some facts about it are as follow –

(a) It is a paper less door to door exercise which will be conducted by recording data on hand held devices.

(b)  It will conducted both in urban and rural India.

(c) It will identify the Below Poverty Line families.

(d) It will also collect data regarding the caste and religion of the person with the exception that this data will not be made available for public view.

#Securities and Exchange Board of India have reformed the provision thereby ensuring greater strictness in Insider Trading –

Question: What is Insider Trading?

Answer: The selling or buying of shares, stocks or security by a person who has access to unpublished price sensitive information (UPSI) not available to the general public is termed as Insider Trading. Insider trading is illegal in most of the countries as its gives undue advantage to insiders when compared to investors of the general public. These insiders can be Directors and other top officials of the company, brokers and even the family members of these 2 groups of people.

The new rules that would be implemented by SEBI would replace the SEBI Prohibition of Insider Trading Regulation 1992. The new rules are based on the recommendations of the Justice Sodhi Committee report.

Broadly the regulations introduced are as follow –

(a) Align Indian system more and more with the International system of curbing Insider trading.
(b) Strengthening the legal enforcement framework
(c) Clear concept and definitions
(d) Facilitating legitimate business transactions
(e) Persons coming under the ambit of the word “INSIDER” have been increased including all the persons having access to UPSI Unpublished Price Sensitive Information which may also include the family members of the person who has access to UPSI.

#Economic Survey of India conducted by OECD, a Paris based think tanks has predicted a positive forecast of Indian economy –

Economic growth forecast of India –

2014-15=5.4%
2015-16=6.6%
2016-17=6.8%

Consumer inflation forecasts of India –

2014-15=7.1%
2015-16=6.3%
2016-17=6.0%

Proposals given by OECD to achieve 8% growth rate-

(a) Reduce the amount of energy subsidies and divert that money towards funding social and physical infrastructure such as schools, universities, hospitals, prisons and community services.

(b) Early implementation of Goods and Services Tax.

(c) Labour reforms and Tax reforms should be implemented

(d) More and more funds for infrastructure development should be deployed

(e) There are many structural barriers to job creation in India. They should be removed.

#SEBI Delisting of Equity Shares Regulation 2009 has been amended.

Question: What is Delisting?

Answer: Delisting means the removal of shares or stocks of a particular company from a trading exchange on which it trades. It happens when a trading company is found to be not in compliance of the listing requirements of that particular exchange.

#U.S. President Mr. Barack Obama would be the Guest of Honour for the 2015 Indian Republic Day celebrations.

#Reforms that need to be taken in order to improve our economy according to our Finance Minister Mr. Arun Jaitley –

(a) Tax amendments which are retrospective in nature should be investor friendly
(b) Tax officials should be directly responsible for chasing black money in corrupt sectors.
(c) Unsustainable tax demands should not be made as they create negative sentiments thereby reducing investments
(d) Land acquisition procedure must be streamlined.
(e) Accountability should be ensured but it should not lead to oppressiveness
(f) Integration of economic reforms with politics.
(g) Banks must continue lending inspite of rising amount of Non performing Assets.

#As the nesting of Olive Ridley turtles has started in Odisha Rushikulya rookery sea coast the fishing trawlers have been completely banned in this area from November till May.

#GMR Male International airport Private Limited (GMIAL) has slapped a fine of around $803 million (Rs 4,987) on Maldivian Government for terminating the Concession Agreement between the two parties wrongfully.

#All the 6 National political parties of India have not complied with RTI Act even after 17 months of the order of Chief Election Commission that they fall under the ambit of RTI Act. All the national political parties need to declare their financial accounts and assets and also tell about their funding sources. They also need to appoint information officers and cater to the RTI application addressed to them for information.

#Arguments against interest cuts by RBI –

1. Repo rate decrease would decrease the rate at which commercial banks lend to the public and will also decrease the rate at which they deposit the public money thereby inducing people to invest in physical and immovable assets.

2. Industrial sector is down. Because of it in-spite of sufficient liquidity the banks have not been lending.

3. Foreign markets sentiments of developed countries and external sector stability also plays a big factor. If the sector is not stable then rate cuts may not be effective.

4. Oil and commodity price may be low at current time but it may increase in future thereby making the rate change ineffective.

#India holds a market share of 0.6% international tourist visit.
China=5.1%
Hong Kong=2.4%
Japan=1.0%

#What is restructuring of NPA i.e. Non Performing Assets?

Answer: This is also known by the name of Debt restructuring. Basically this process of restructuring is done in order to convert these NPA’s from liability to assets. The ideology it to give support to those business which can recover their losses by giving them extended loan tenures, keeping interest payments on hold, waiving off the interest, issuing fresh term or working capital loans. By doing this banks have the potential to recover a good amount of their lending which comes under the definition of Non Performing Assets.

#World Gold Council (WGC) and Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad have collaborated with each other in order to conduct a study whose objective would be to find out how the 22000 tonnes of gold reserves that India holds can be utilized to advance employment, social inclusion, growth and economic wealth of our country India.

#PABT (Pilot Aptitude Battery Test) has been replaced by Computerized Pilot Selection System (CPSS). This new method would more efficiently select the pilot for the Indian Air force.

#Question: What Tubectomy and Vasectomy?

Answer: Tubectomy and Vasectomy are permanent contraception methods for women and men respectively.

#Billed passed by the Parliament in the first week of winter session –

(a) The Delhi special Police Establishment (Amendment) Bill, 2014.
(b) The Labour Law Amendment Bill 2011
(c) The Apprentices Amendment Bill, 2014

Passed in Lok Sabha but pending in Rajya Sabha –

(a) The Indian Institutes of Information Technology Bill, 2014
(b) The Central Universities Amendment Bill, 2014.
(c) The Constitution (Scheduled Castes) Orders Amendment Bill 2014.

#Salient features of Kisan Vikas Patra –

(a) It is a saving instrument like Public Provident Fund (PPF) and National Savings Certificates (NSC)

(b) Interest provided is 8.7%

(c) In a period of 100 month your invested amount will get doubled.

(d) Minimum lock in period of 30 months

(e) The amount can be enchased after the expiration of lock in period in eight equal monthly instalments.

(f) Minimum investment limit of Rs 1000 that is we have to invest at least Rs 1000 in it and there is no maximum investment limit. Investment can be mode through cash or cheque.

(g) Earning are taxable.

(h) Initially Kisan Vikas Patra will be available for sale at all the post offices of the country and after wards they will also be sold by some Public Sector Banks.

(i) While purchasing Kisan Vikas Patra we need to give our address and identity proof but we do not have to give our Personal Account Number. Due to loose know your customer(KYC) norms some experts have iterated their views that KVP can be misused for money laundering.

#Points of Traditional Public Administration -

(a) Public services considered an exclusive task performed by the Government
(b) Citizen avoiding and secrecy in governmental business
(c) Public Private Distinction
(d) Rigid, rule bound and hierarchic model
(e) Process Accountability
(f) Anonymous bureaucracy
(g) Structure oriented
(h) Emphasis on rationality in Decision Making
(i) Adoption of centralized strategy
(j) Authoritative approach
(k) Politics Administration Dichotomy
(l) Focus on structures and processes

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