Wednesday, February 11, 2015

12th February 2014 IAS PCS Questions of the Day

Question 1. Which of the following statements regarding the three types of emergency provisions under the Constitution of India are correct?

1. Only the National Emergency can be discontinued by the Parliament, while President’s rule and Financial Emergency cannot be.

2. All three types of emergencies require a special majority in the Parliament for ratification.

3. Fundamental Rights get affected under all three types of emergency.

4. Centre gets powers to legislate on State List items under all three types of emergencies.

5. State legislature gets suspended only under the President’s rule. While it continues to function normally in the other two cases.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below

(a) 1,2 and 4

(b) 2,3 and 5 

(c) 1 and 5

(d) 2 and 5

Solution 1. (c) Statement 1 is correct. With the 44th Amendment Act, National Emergency can now be discontinued by the Lok Sabha by a resolution passed by a simple majority while the other two types of emergencies can be revoked only by the President. 

Statement 2 is incorrect, because only the National Emergency requires a special majority in Parliament, while the other two require only a simple majority, Statement 3 is also incorrect, because Fundamental Rights get suspended only under the National Emergency and remain unaffected under the other two. 

Centre has no power to legislate on State List items under Financial Emergency and so Statement 4 is also incorrect. Although, centre does get the powers to issue directions to the states to reserve for the consideration of the President. Statement 5 is correct. State Governments get suspended only under the President’s rule and function normally under the other two types of emergencies. It should be remembered though that even under President’s rule State Assembly does not necessarily get dissolved.

Question 2. Which of the following ocean currents are warm current?

1. Humboldt

2. Alaskan

3. Antilles

4. Norwegian

5. Falkland

6. Canary

7. Irminger

Select the correct answer using the codes given below

(a) 1,3,5 and 6

(b) 2,3,4 and 7

(c) 1,2,4,5 and 6

(d) 2,3,5,6 and 7

Solution 2. (b) Humboldt (Peru) and Falkland Current are cold currents.

Question 3. Which of the following have been considered biodiversity hotspots?

1. Caucasus region

2. Norway

3. Horn of Africa

4. Antarctica

5. Mediterranean

6. Middle East

7. Valdivian forests

Select the correct answer using the codes given below

(a) 1,2,4 and 6

(b) 1,3,5 and 7

(c) 2,3,4,5 and 6

(d) All of these

Solution 3. (b) Currently there are 34 Biodiversity Hotspots in the world. To qualify as a Hotspot, a region must contain at least 1500 species of vascular plants as endemics and it has to have lost at least 70% of its original habitat.

Question 4. Which of the following mountain ranges are situated in Asia?

1. Taurus

2. Pontik

3. Appalachians

4. Albruz

5. Pyrenees

6. Jagros

7. Cambrian

Select the correct answer using the codes given below 

(a) 3,4,5 and 6

(b) 1,2,4 and 6

(c) 1,3,5 and 7

(d) 1,2,3,4,5 and 6

Solution 4. (b) The Cambrian mountains are a series of mountains ranges in wales (England). The Appalachians mountains are situated in Eastern North America. Pyrenees mountains situated in South-West Europe and forms a natural border between France and Spain.

Question 5. In cloning of cattle, a fertilized egg is taken out of the mother’s womb and 

(a) the egg is divided into four pairs of cells, which are implanted into the womb of other cows

(b) in the eight cell stage, cells are separated and cultured until small embryos are formed, which are implanted into the womb of other cows

(c) in the eight cell stage, the individual cells are separated under electrical field for further development in culture media

(d) from this up to eight identical twins can be produced

Solution 5. (b) In cloing of cattle, a fertilized egg divides in 2, then in 4 and then in 8. This embryo is carefully removed from the womb of different ‘host mother’ cow.

The economic advantages of cloning and transplanting cattle embryos are as follows -

#Makes it possible to create identical copies of the very best individuals in a population, such as the highest milk producing cow.

#Makes it possible to produce a genetically identical copy of an individual for tissue organ transplantation.

#Extinct or endangered species can be repopulated through cloning.

Question 6. Elementary particles are considered as the building blocks of nature. Which of the following statements regarding elementary particles is/are correct?

1. Protons are considered as elementary particles.

2. Gravitational force does not apply to elementary particles.

3. ‘Standard Model’ of physics is a complete theory of elementary particles, which includes all the fundamental forces.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below

(a) Only 1

(b) 1 and 2

(c) 2 and 3

(d) None of these

Solution 6. (d) Elementary particles are those, which are not made up of any further sub-particles. Since, protons are made of smaller sub-particles (called quarks), they are not considered as elementary particles. Gravitational force applies to all particles with mass including elementary particles. Standard Model of Physics is the most popular theory of particle physics, but it consists of only the strong, weak and electromagnetic forces and excludes the gravitational forces.

Question 7. Consider the following statements regarding Educational Institutions founded during the British Rule in India

1. Baptist Mission College was founded by missionaries in Karnataka.

2. Lord Wellesley founded fort William College

3. Sanskrit College was established in Calcutta by Duncan.

4. In January, 1817, Hindu College was established at Banaras.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) Only 1

(b) Only 2

(c) 1 and 2

(d) 2 and 3

Solution 7. (b) Baptist Mission College was founded by missionaries in Hooghly is West Bengal Sanskrit college was established in Varanasi by Duncan. In January 1817 Hindu college was established at Kolkata.

Question 8. Consider the following statement regarding the Forest Rights Act, 2006

1. It aims at recognition of rights of forest dwelling scheduled tribes and other traditional forest dwellers on forests and forest land.

2. The Forest Rights Act prescribes for empowering the forest right holders, Gram Sabhas and local level institutions in regard to protection of wildlife, forests, biodiversity and habitat, cultural and natural heritage.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) Both 1 and 2

(b) Only 1 

(c) Only 2 

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution 8. (a) Some of the important features of the Forest Rights Act, 2006 are -

The Forest Rights Act not only provides for the recognition of 13 types of forest rights (individual as well as community rights) but also prescribes for empowering the forest right holders, Gram Sabhas and local level institutions in regard to protection of wildlife, forests, biodiversity, habitat, cultural and natural heritage.

Eligibility Criteria - Eligibility to get rights under the Act is confined to those who primarily reside in forests and who depend on forests and forest land for a livelihood. Further, either the claimant must be a member of the Scheduled Tribes scheduled in that area or must have been residing in the forest for 75 years.

Process of Recognition of Rights - The act provides that the Gram Sabha or Village Assembly, will initially pass resolution recommending whose rights to which resources should be recognized (which land belong to whom, how much land was under the cultivation of each person as on 13th December, 2005, etc.)

Question 9. Fly ash can be utilized in 

1. concrete production

2. mine reclamation

3. stabilization of soft soil

4. loose application on rivers to melt ice

5. cosmetics

6. toothpaste

Select the correct answer using the codes given below

(a) 1,2 and 3

(b) 2,3 and 4

(c) 1,4,5 and 6

(d) All of these

Solution 9. (d) Fly Ash is used in the cement industry, brick manufacturing industry, construction of road embankment, saline soil/waste land reclamation, mine filling. It can increase production agriculture, horticulture and forestry. It is also used in little amount in cosmetics and toothpaste.

Question 10. Match the following -

A. It is bottom living marine fish, famous for discharging electricity - 1. Torpedo

B. It is the connecting link between cartilaginous and bony fishes - 2. Starfish

C. It has the Jacobson - 3. Snake

D. It has tube feet - 4. Chimera

Codes

(a) A(1) B(4) C(3) D(2)

(b) A(4) B(3) C(2) D(1)

(c) A(3) B(2) C(1) D(4)

(d) A(2) B(1) C(4) D(3)

Solution 10. (a) Torpedo (electric ray) is a bottom living marine fish, famous for discharging electricity, which is sufficient enough to stun preys such as small fishes etc. A pair of electric organs is situated on the dorsal side of the trunk region.

Chimera, commonly called rabbit fish, rat fish, ghost fish or king of herring is found in deep sea. It is considered as the connecting link between cartilaginous and bony fishes.

The Jacobson’s organ is located on the roof of the mouth in reptiles (snake) and mammals. This organ works by sensing the chemicals such as pheromones.

Tube feet are the locomotory organs of echinodermata (star fish). These are sac-like protrusions of the body wall used for locomotion, feeding and respiration.

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