Sunday, February 15, 2015

15th February 2014 IAS PCS Questions of the Day

Question 1. Consider the following statements

1. Acid rain has pH value of less than 5.0 and contains high amount of SO2 , NO and other pollutants.

2. Active dispersal is the movement of organisms from one point to another by being carried along by some other force.

3. The tendency for some substances to concentrate with each trophic level is called biomagnification

Which of the statement given above are correct?

(a) 1 and 2
(b) 2 and 3
(c) 1 and 3
(d) All of these

Solution 1. (c) Acid rain is a rain or any other form of precipitation that is unusually acidic, having pH value of less than 5.0 Acid rain is caused by emissions of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide, which react with the water molecules in the atmosphere to produce acids.

Active dispersal is the movement of organisms by its own mobility.

Biomagnification, also known as bio-amplification or biological magnification, is the increase in concentration of a substance with each trophic level. It is the sequence of processes in an ecosystem by which higher concentrations of a particular chemical such as the pesticide DOT, are reached in organisms higher up the food chain, generally through a series of prey-predator relationships.

Question 2. Consider the following statements

1. Vulnerability is the degree to which a system is susceptible to or unable to cope with the adverse effects of climate change, including climate variability and extremes.

2. IPCC defines mitigation as technological change and substitution that reduces resource inputs and emissions per unit of output with respect to climate change.

3. Adaptation to climate change refers to adjustment in natural or human systems in response to actual or expected climatic stimuli or their effects, which moderates harm or exploits beneficial opportunities.

Which of the statement given above are correct?

(a) 1 and 2 
(b) 2 and 3
(c) 1 and 3
(d) All of these

Solution 2. (d) Adaptation refers to the ability of a system to adjust to climate change in order to reduce its vulnerability and enhance the resilience to observed and anticipated impacts of climate change. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) defines adaptation as ‘adjustment in natural or human systems to a new or changing environment.

Mitigation-It refers to any strategy or action taken to remove the GHGs released into the atmosphere or to reduce their amount.

Question 3. What is the most significant difference in the message of the Pillar edicts as compared to the Rock edicts?

(a) Rock edicts are addressed to common people and Pillar edicts to the Buddhist
(b) The main stress in the Pillar edicts is on social welfare measure
(c) There is a hint of fanaticism about dhamma and of megalomania in the Pillar edicts
(d) Rock edicts are addressed to common people and Pillar edicts to the Buddhist order

Solution 3. (a) The rock edicts were mainly for common people. They were placed along trade routes and in border cities where the edicts would be read by the largest number of people possible. They were also erected at pilgrimage sites such as at Bodh Gaya, Sarnath and Sanchi. Pillar edicts were mainly addressed to Buddhist.

Question 4. Consider the following

1. Dark energy

2. Dark matter

3. The matter which we see

As per the current theory, which among the following is the correct decreasing order of the above as fractions of universe?

(a) 1,2 ,3
(b) 2,1,3
(c) 2,3,1
(d) 3,2,1

Solution 4. (a) Gravity acting across vast distances does not seem to explain what astronomers see e.g. galaxies should fly apart, some other mass must be there holding them together. Astrophysicists have thus postulated ‘dark matter’ – invisible to us, but clearly acting on galactic scales.

At the greatest distances, as the nobel laureates found, the universe’s expansion is accelerating. Thus, we have also dark energy which acts to drive the expansion, in opposition to gravity. The current theory holds that 70% of the universe is dark energy, 25% is dark matter and just 5% the kind of matter we know well.

Question 5. Consider the following statement with reference to the Lokpal and Lokayuktas act, 2013

1. The Chairperson and members of the Lokpal may be removed on grounds of misbehavior by an order of the President on the basis of the inquiry made by the Selection Committee.

2. Lokpal will have power of superintendence and direction over any investigation agency including CBI for cases referred to them by Lokpal.

3. 50% of members of Lokpal shall be from SC/ST/OBCs, minorities and women

Which of the statement given above are correct ?

(a) 1 and 2
(b) 1 and 3
(c) 2 and 3
(d) All of these

Solution 5. (c) The Chairperson and members of the Lokpal may be removed on grounds of misbehavior by an order of the President. The President may make a reference to the Supreme Court to enquire into the Lokpal’s conduct (a) on his own, (b) on the basis of a petition signed by atleast 100 Member of Parliament or (c) if he is satisfied with a petition by a citizen. The President may issue an order or removal on the basis of the inquiry made by the Supreme Court.

Question 6. Consider the following statements about greenhouse effect

1. Without greenhouse effect, Earth’s surface temperature would average about 30 degree C colder than the present average of 14 degree C.

2. Carbon dioxide is the most abundant greenhouse gas in the Earth’s atmosphere.

3. Carbon monoxide is also an important contributor of greenhouse effect.

4. Clouds absorb and emit infrared radiation and thus add to the effect of greenhouse gases.

Which of the statement given above are correct ?

(a) 1 and 2
(b) 1 and 4
(c) 1,2 and 3
(d) All of these

Solution 6. (b) Some amount of greenhouse effect is necessary for sustenance of life on Earth. Without any greenhouse effect Earth’s surface temperature will be 30 degree C colder. Water vapour is the most abundant greenhouse gas in the Earth’s atmosphere. Carbon monoxide is short-lived in the atmosphere owing to its reactivity and solubility. Hence, it does not contribute significantly to the greenhouses effect. Clouds are the major non-gas contributor to the Earth’s greenhouse effect. Clouds absorb and emit infrared radiation and thus, add to the effect of the greenhouse gases.

Question 7. Palestine got a ‘non-member observer’ status at UN General Assembly in 2012. What could be the consequences of such recognition?

1. Palestine can vote on resolutions and substantive motions in UN General Assembly.

2. Palestine would be eligible to get loans from World Bank for reconstruction and development of Gaza and West Bank.

3. Palestine can join the International Criminal Court and ask it to investigate acts committed by Israel as potential war crimes.

4. Palestine will be entitled to join the specialized agencies of the UN of which it is not already a member.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below

(a) Only 1 
(b) 2 and 3
(c) 3 and 4 
(d) 1, 2 and 3

Solution 7. (c) In addition to its 193 members states, the United Nations welcome many international organizations, entities and non-member state (currently only two ) as observers. Observer status is granted by a United Nations General Assembly resolution. The Status of a permanent observer is based purely on practice and there are no provisions for it in the United Nations Charter.

Observers have the Right to Speak at United Nations General Assembly meetings, participate in procedural votes and to sponsor and sign resolutions, but not to vote on resolutions and other substantive matters. Various other rights (e.g., to speak in debates to submit proposals and amendments, the right of reply, to raise point of order and to circulate documents, etc) are given selectively to some observers only. So far, the EU is the only international organization to hold these enhanced powers.

There is a distinction between state and non-state observers. Non-member states of the United Nations, which are members of one or more specialized agencies, can apply for the status of permanent observer state. The non-state observers are the international organizations and other entities. Non-member observer states are arranged for seating in the General Assembly hall immediately after the member states and before the other observers.

Question 8. Which of the following statements is/are not the correct provisions of a Money bill?

1. Money bill are provided under Article 110

2. Any bill providing for imposition of any tax as one of its provisions is a Money bill.

3. A bill, whose only provisions are those relating to declaring any expenditure as expenditure charged on the Consolidated Fund of India is a Money bill.

4. A bill providing only for the imposition of taxes by a local authority for local purposes is also Money bill.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below

(a) 1 and 3 
(b) Only 2
(c) 3 and 4
(d) 2 and 4

Solution 8. (d) Statement 1 is correct as Article 110 of the Constitution is the one which provides for Money bills. Statement 2 is incorrect as Money bills should have the provision of imposition of a tax as their only provision and not just one of their provisions. Statement 3 is also correct, while Statement 4 is incorrect according to the constitutional provision in Article 110.

Question 9. Consider the following statements in the context of Trans-Afghanistan Pipeline (also known as Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India Pipeline, TAP or TAPI)

1. The proposed natural gas pipeline is being financed by the World Bank.

2. The pipeline will start from the Dauletabad gas field in Turkmenistan and would go upto town of Daulatabad, near the border between Pakistan and India.

3. Original project started in 1995 with an inaugural Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) between the Governments of Turkmenistan and Afghanistan for a pipeline project was signed.

4. Inter-governmental agreement on the pipeline was signed in December, 2010 in Ashgabat, popularly known as Ashgabat Agreement.

Which of the statement given above are correct?

(a) 1, 2 and 3
(b) 3 and 4
(c) 1,2 and 4
(d) Only 4

Solution 9. (d) Pipeline is being developed by the Asian Development Bank. The pipeline will transport Caspian sea natural gas from Turkmenistan through Afghanistan into Pakistan and then to India. Pipeline will start from the Dauletabad gas field. The final destination of the pipeline will be the Indian town of Fazilka, near the border between Pakistan and India.

The original project started on 15th March, 1995 when an inaugural Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) between the Governments of Turkmenistan and Pakistan for a pipeline project was signed. This project was promoted by Argentinian company Bridas Corporation. On 24th April, 2008, Pakistan, India and Afghanistan signed a framework agreement to buy natural gas from Turkmenistan. The intergovernmental agreement on the pipeline was signed on 11th December, 2010, in Ashgabat.

Question 10. The main criteria for census towns are

1. A minimum population of 5000 persons.

2. At Least 75% of male working population engaged in non-agricultural pursuits.

3. A density of population of atleast 400 persons per sq km.

Which of the statement given above are correct?

(a) Only 1
(b) 1 and 3
(c) 2 and 3
(d) All of these

Solution 10. (d) The main criteria for census towns are 

1. A minimum population of 5000 persons.

2. Atleast 75% of male working population engaged in non-agricultural pursuits.

3. A density of population of at least 400 persons per sq km.

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