Tuesday, February 17, 2015

18th February 2014 IAS PCS Questions of the Day

Question 1. Consider the following statements in the context of Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations describing some provisions under it

1. The host nation may at any time and for any reason declare a particular member of the diplomatic staff to be persona non grata.

2. The premises of a diplomatic mission, such as an embassy, are inviolate and must not be entered by the host country except by permission of the head of the mission.

3. Diplomats must not be liable to any form of arrest or detention. They are immune form civil or criminal prosecution.

4. The family members of a diplomat who are living in the host country enjoy most of the same protections as the diplomats themselves.

Which of the statement given above are correct?

(a) 1 and 2
(b) 1, 2 and 3
(c) 1,3 and 4
(d) All of these

Solution 1. (d) This question is very important realizing the recent implementation and citing of the convention. The Vienna Convention on diplomatic relations of 1961 is an international treaty that defines a framework for diplomatic relations between independent countries. It specifies the privileges of a Diplomatic Mission that enable diplomats to perform their function without fear of coercion or harassment by the host country. This forms the legal basis for diplomatic immunity. Its articles are considered a cornerstone of modern international relations. It has been ratified by 187 countries. The 1961 UN Vienna Convention on diplomatic relations marked its 50th Anniversary in April, 2011.

Some of its key provision are –

Article 9 The host nation may at any time and for any reason declare a particular member of the diplomatic staff to be persona non-grata. The sending state must recall this person within a reasonable period of time or otherwise this person may lose his diplomatic immunity.

Article 22 The premises of a Diplomatic Mission, such as an embassy, are inviolate and must not be entered by the host country except by permission of the head of the mission. Furthermore the host country must protect the mission from intrusion or damage. The host country must never search the premises, nor seize its documents or property.

Article 30 Extends this provision to the private residence of the diplomats.

Article 27 The host country must permit and protect free communication between the diplomats of the mission and their home country. A diplomatic bag must never be opened even on suspicion of abuse. A diplomatic courier must never be arrested or detained.

Article 29 Diplomats must not be liable to any form of arrest or detention. They are immune from civil or criminal prosecution, though the sending country may waive this right under this article.

Article 32 Under Article 34, they are exempt from most taxes and under Article 36, they are exempt from customs duties.

Article 311c Actions not covered by diplomatic immunity, professional activity outside diplomat’s official functions.

Article 37 The family members of a diplomat that are living in the host country enjoy most of the same protections as the diplomats themselves.

Question 2. What were the effect of First Mass Strike, after the passing of amended Rowlatt  Act?

1. The masses could act now instead of verbal expression.
2. The national movement permanently shifted the base on masses.
3. Urban poor played an increasingly important role in the struggle form now.

Which of the statement given above are correct?

(a) 1 and 2
(b) 2 and 3
(c) 1 and 3
(d) All of these

Solution 2. (d) When Gandhiji launched the First Mass Strike Movement, after the Rowlatt Act in 1919, there was a radical change in the situation from now

a. masses had found a direction
b. they could now act instead of verbal expression 
c. from now, peasants, artisans and urban poor played an important role in the struggle
d. the movement base was widened and masses took the active participation in nationalist movement.

Question 3. Which of the following statements regarding the schools of Indian philosophy is/are correct?

1. Charvaka school believes in the Vedas.
2. Mimamsa believes in the Vedas but not in the existence of God in them.
3. The Samkhya school believes in an infinite number of God.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below

(a) 1 and 2
(b) Only 2 
(c) 1 and 3
(d) None of these

Solution 3. (b) The school of Mimamsa consists of both atheistic and theistic doctrines and is not deeply interested in the existence of God, put rather in the character of dharma. Charvaka was a philosophy of skepticism and materialism. Charvaka deemed Vedas to be tainted by the three faults of untruth, self-contradiction and tautology. Kapila is the founder of the Samkhya philosophy, it regards the universe as consisting of two realities; Purusha and Prakriti. Samkhya philosophy denies the final cause of God.

Question 4. Which of the following statements regarding intrusive igneous rocks

1. There are called plutonic rocks.
2. Granite, diorite, gabbro are examples.
3. The intrusive rocks lying in a slanting direction as an off shoot are called dykes.

Which of the statement given above are correct?

(a) Only 1
(b) 1 and 3
(c) 2 and 3
(d) All of these

Solution 4. (d) When molten materials of Earth’s interior (magma) do not reach Earth’s surface, they cool and solidify below the surface are called intrusive igneous rocks e.g., granite, diorite, gabbro called plutonic rocks have larger crystals, compact, resistant and glassy in appearance e.g., quartz, batholiths. Rate of cooling is slower been formed at great depths.Sills - Some of the lava may push its way through passages in the form of sills or dykes. When magma is being forced upwards, some of the lava may push its way in between two layers of rock and get solidified there. The intrusive rock formed called sill – almost horizontal. Dykes - Magma also forces its way before reaching the main fissure, trying to go up, but gets solidified before reaching the surface. These intrusive rocks lying in a slanting direction as an off shoot are called dykes.

Question 5.  Consider the following statements

1. Lagoons are comparatively less in East Coastal Plain of India.
2. The Western coastal plain has indented coast which supports many ports.
3. The backwaters and lagoons are ideal for fishing.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) Only 1
(b) 1 and 2
(c) 2 and 4
(d) All of these

Solution 5. (d) West coastal plain is a narrow and uneven plain with an average width of 65 km. East coastal plain is comparatively broader and more level plain with an average width of 80-100 km.

There are several estuaries lagoons especially in the Southern part of West coastal plain. Lagoons are comparatively less in East coastal plain more or less a straight coast where good ports are lacking.

Western coast gets more rainfall than the Eastern coast of India. Eastern coast gets less rainfall (100-125 cm).

West coastal plain lies between Western ghats and the Arabian sea. East coastal plain lies between ghats and the Bay of Bengal.

West coastal plain is known as the Konkan coast in Maharashtra and Goa, Kanara coast in Karnataka and Malabar coast in Kerala. East coastal plain is known as the Northern circars in the North and Coromandel coast in South.

Question 6. Which one of the following statements regarding ‘Carbon Credits’?

(a) The Carbon Credit System was ratified in conjunction with the Kyoto Protocol

(b) Carbon Credit are awarded to countries or groups that have reduced greenhouse gases below their emission quota.

(c) The goal of the Carbon Credit System is to limit the increase of carbon dioxide emission

(d) Carbon credits are traded at a price fixed from time to time by the United Nations Environment Programme

Solution 6. (d) The carbon credits are sold on priority in the international market at the prevailing market price. Climate exchanges have been established to provide a spot market market or well altogether and option markets to help discover a market price.

Question 7. Consider the following coins

1. Bhagaka
2. Rupaka
3. Vimsatika
4. Gadyanaka

Which of the above coins were used in early medieval India?

(a) 1 and 2
(b) 1,2 and 3
(c) 3 and 4
(d) All of these

Solution 7. (d) Bhagaka, Rupaka, Vimsatika, Karshapana, Dinar, Drama, Nishka Gadhaiya-mudra, Gadya Naka, Tanka were coins in use during the period AD 900-1300. Texts such as Prabandh Chintamani, Lilavati, Dravya Pariksha, Lekha Paddhati etc, mention these coins. There revival of trade received considerable help from the re-emergence of metal money during these centuries.

Question 8. Consider the following statement about Epeirogenic movements

1. These are horizontal movements caused by tangential forces.
2. They cause large scale upliftment, subsidence or submergence and emergence of the land areas.
3. These movement are rather quick and widespread and fracturing and folding is produced in the rock.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) Only 1
(b) Only 2
(c) 1 and 3
(d) All of these

Solution 8. (b) Epeirogenic movements are vertical movements, caused by radial forces and characterized by slow, widespread, large-scale upliftment, subsidence or submergence and emergence of land areas.

Orogenic movements are horizontal movements caused by tangential forces and involve intense folding, trusting, faulting and uplift of narrow belts.

Question 9.  Consider the following statements with reference to carbon trading

1. Carbon trading idea emanated after the signing of the Kyoto Protocol.

2. It mandated GHG emission caps on industrialized nation.

3. Clean Development Management (CDM) allows for company project in developing countries, with no mandated emission reduction targeted, to trade in CERs with countries that have such targets.

4. Once CER is equal to a reduction of one tonne of carbon.

Which of the statements given above are correct?

(a) 1, 2, 3 and 4
(b) 1,2 and 3
(c) 2 and 4
(d) 3 and 4

Solution 9. (a) The key idea behind carbon trading is that, from the planet’s point of view, where carbon dioxide comes from is far less important than total amounts. Carbon trading is a market based mechanism for helping mitigate the increase of CO2 in the atmosphere.

Question 10. Which of the following factors cause an increase in salinity of ocean water

1. High temperature 
2. High humidity
3. Presence of winds
4. Presence of river mouths

Select the correct answer using the codes given below

(a) 1 and 3
(b) 1 and 4
(c) 1,2 and 3
(d) All of these

Solution 10. (a) In general, higher the temperature the higher is the evaporation, but if humidity is higher, evaporation is not higher even if the temperature is high. Thus, equatorial regions with higher temperature, but humidity do not have high salinity. Salinity changes slightly due to winds. Presence of winds causes increased evaporation, which results in high salinity.

The amount of salinity decreases due to the influx of fresh water by river. Hence, near the mouths of rivers Amazon, Congo, Niger, Ganges and St. Lawrence, comparatively lower salinity is found.

No comments:

Post a comment

Add a Comment or Query