Thursday, February 19, 2015

19th February 2014 IAS PCS Questions of the Day

Question 1. Consider the following pressure conditions

1. The equatorial low pressure belt extends well into the Southern hemisphere.

2. The subtropical high pressure systems of the Southern hemisphere are formed only over the oceans.

3. Low pressure is well developed over Australia.

In which of the following months, above conditions are seen?

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) January
(b) March
(c) July
(d) September

Solution 1. (a) During the month of January, the equatorial low pressure belt extends well into the Southern hemisphere, where there is the summer season.

In the Northern hemisphere, the low temperatures produce strong high pressure systems, which link up with the subtropical high pressure systems of North. The subtropical high pressure systems of the Southern hemisphere are formed only over the oceans. Low pressure is particularly well developed over Australia.

Question 2. An Eutrophic lake is characterized by

1. An excessive growth of plant biomass.
2. Small less desirable fishes replaces larger and more desirable species.
3. Development of zones without oxygen.
4. Algal blooms and scums.

Which of the statements given above are correct?

(a) 1 and 2
(b) 1,2 and 3
(c) 1,2 and 4
(d) All of these

Solution 2. (d) Eutrophication is the ecosystem response to the addition of artificial or natural substances, such as nitrates and phosphates, through fertilizers or sewage, to an aquatic system.

There will be a great increase of phytoplankton in a water body as a response to increased levels of nutrients. Negative environmental effects include hypoxia, the depletion of oxygen in the water, which induces reductions in specific fish and other animal populations. Other species (such as Nomura’s jellyfish in Japanese waters) may experience an increase in population that negatively affects other species.

Question 3. Consider the following statements with reference to the wetlands of India.

1. The country’s total geographical area under the category of wetlands is recorded more in Gujarat as compared to other states.

2. In India, the total geographical area of coastal wetlands larger than that of wetlands. 

Which of the statements given above are correct?

(a) Only 1
(b) Only 2
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 and 2

Solution 3. (b) India has a wealth of wetland ecosystem distributed in different geographical regions. Most of the wetlands in India are directly or indirectly linked with major river systems such as the Ganges. Kaveri, Krishna, Godavari and Tapti. India has totally 27403 wetlands, of which 23444 are inland wetlands and 3959 are coastal wetlands.

According to the Directory of Asian Wetlands (1989), wetlands occupy 18.4% of the country area (excluding rivers), of which 70% are under paddy cultivation. In India, out of an estimated 4.1 mha (excluding irrigated agricultural lands, rivers and streams) of wetlands, 1.5 mha are natural, while 2.6 mha are man-made.

The coastal wetlands occupy an estimated 6750 sq km and are largely dominated by mangrove vegetation. About 80% of the mangroves are distributed in the Sunderbans of Paschim banga and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, with the rest in the coastal States of Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Kerala, Goa, Maharashtra and Gujarat.

State-wise distribution of wetlands showed that Lakshadweep has 96.12% of geographic area under wetlands followed by Andaman and Nicobar Islands (18.52%), Daman and Diu (18.46%) and Gujarat (17.56%) have highest extent of wetlands. Puducherry (12.88%), Paschim Banga (12.48%), Asom (9.74%) are wetland-rich states. States like Mizoram, Haryana, Delhi, Sikkim, Nagaland and Meghalaya, the extents of wetland is less than 1.5%.

Question 4. Consider the following statements 

1. The beehive has two types of bees-a queen and worker bees.
2. Queen will be the only fertile female bee in the hive.
3. The queen receives and stores the sperms and then deposits about 500-1000 eggs continuously for about two-three years.

Which of the statements given above are correct?

(a) 1 and 2
(b) 1 and 3
(c) 2 and 3
(d) All of these

Solution 4. (c) The beehive has three types of bees a queen, drone and worker bees. Worker bees are sterile females. Drone males die after copulating with the queen. The queen receives and stores the sperms and then deposits about 500-1000 eggs continuously for about two-three years. Only some eggs are fertilized. The fertile ones are designated workers and the infertile ones are males of drone bees.

Question 5. In the light of Mansabdari System of administration of medieval India, examine the following statements

1. The word Mansab means a rank in the mansab system under Mughals.
2. The Mansabdari System was invention of Mughals.
3. The system was represented by the dual rank of Zat and Sawar.

Which of the statements given above are correct?

(a) 1 and 3
(b) 1 and 2
(c) 3 and 4
(d) All of these

Solution 5. (a) The word Mansab means a place or position and therefore, it means a rank in the Mansab System, under the Mughals. The system was borrowed from Western Asia and modified to suit the needs of the time in India. Under Akbar, the Mansab System represented by the dual rank of Zat and Sawar. The former determined the personal pay and status in the official hierarchy, while later determined the number of horsemen to be maintained and the salary for the maintenance of those horsemen.

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