Tuesday, February 17, 2015

Cyber Warfare,Cyber Vandalism,Replacement Fertility Level,TFA,FTA,Health Expenditure Cut

1. What is the difference between Cyber Warfare and Cyber Vandalism? 

Cyber Warfare is a politically motivated attack on the computer systems of a foreign country to cause sabotage and conduct espionage i.e. robbing off important and classified information. We can give it a name of war of information.

Cyber vandalism is not necessary an act of stealing information but it can be said to be an act of creating disturbance in an organization through cyber attack. For Example -  North Korea attack on US office of Sony picture which led sending wrong emails, disturbing records, leaking salary details and film budgets. All this caused loss of millions of dollars to the company.

2. Convicts at Tihar jail in Delhi to get Rs. 1 lakh accidental insurance and Rs. 30000 life insurance and their accounts would be opened under Jan Dhan Yojana.

3. India will reach to near replacement fertility level by 2020. Total fertility rate means average number of children that will be born to a woman during her entire life time. Replacement fertility level is 2.1. As soon as the figure of fertility level drops below 2.1 it means population has started reducing. 9 states of north and east including Gujarat have not reached the 2.1 figure while rest of the country has reached those levels. For Example-Himachal Pradesh, J&K, Punjab and Southern States of India. West Bengal is the state having the lowest fertility rate.

4. Finance Ministry has reduced the health expenditure by Rs. 6,000 crore in the ongoing Financial year. In Dollar stats it has reduced $948 million from $5 billion allocated. This progress has been shocking for health ministry officials as the health budget expenditure of India is very low at around 1% of GDP. For China the figure is 5% and for the U.S. the figure is 8.3%

Out of 1.2 billion poor people all over the World around 0.4 billion live in India. The current health scenario in India is not very good due to widespread prevalence of innumerable diseases killing people in all age groups. Most probably this has been done to meet the fiscal deficit target of 4.1% of GDP in 2014-15.

5. Advantage of Trade Facilitation Agreement of WTO over Preferential Trade Agreements like Free Trade Agreement, Regional Trade Agreement.

(1) Trade Facilitation Agreement of World Trade Organization will apply to all 160 WTO countries whereas application of Preferential Trade Agreement would be limited to some countries. If facilitation of trade is limited between some countries than to some extent efficiency suffers as other countries who might be more proficient in that particular business would be out of the deal.

(2) In case of Preferential Trade Agreement between developing countries and developed countries the former would be at an obvious disadvantage whereas conditions in Trade Facilitation Agreement of World Trade Organization would be more conducive to all the parties involved as countries can form groups according to common interest of theirs.

(3) In TFA proper arbitration mechanism against a terms defaulter country would be present whereas the same in case of Preferential Trade Agreement is not that evident.

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