Monday, February 09, 2015

Has India achieved its target of MDG(Millennium Development Goals)

Ques 33. Critically examine India’s achievements in meeting the targets of Millemium Development Goals.

Ans. At the Millenium Summit of the U.N of 2000, MDG were adopted and were targeted to be achieved by 2015.  Originally they were categorized under 8 heads but now the scope of the targets and indicators has been broadened. 

Below are the results –

(a) The 1st target of eradicating extreme poverty and hunger by measuring the percentage of people surviving on less than 1 dollar per day (poverty ratio). The poverty ratio was to be halved from 1990 to 2015. Abstractly this target has almost been met but practically the ground condition is discouraging as the number of people who suffer from hunger have still not reduced considerably because of increasing inflation and decreasing value of money.

(b) Second is to achieve universal primary education but for this primary enrolment should be achieved first which at present is more than 90 percent. This shows that considerable amount of progress has been achieved and it is said that in coming few years the enrolment would be 100% but enrolment does not means achieving quality education specially in view of the fact that at the start of secondary education the enrolment falls by around 1/3rd. So special emphasis needs to be given on enrolment in secondary education and the quality of education at primary, secondary and higher education level.

(c)Third target is to remove gender based disparities on primary, secondary and higher education level. On first two the progress is satisfactory but in higher education the progress is slow. A robust and well planned integrated national programme which considers State level factors should be implemented to streamline the education system as a whole.

(d) As in the yearbook the first, second and third target have been assessed to be “on track” while the 4th target of reducing child/under five mortality rate by 2/3rd is assessed to be “moderately on track”. Preventive factors should be focused on like nutrition and sanitation and a more integrated approach involving all stakeholders is required to counter this menace.

(e) Fifth target is to reduce maternal mortality rate by 2/3rd from 1990 to 2015 and is assessed to be “slow or off track”. Its achievements are even wore than the 4th target probably due to prevalent gender disparities.

(f) Sixth goal is to combat (HIV/AIDS), Malaria and other major diseases. Active policy and epidemiological factors has prevented the growth/menace of HIV/AIDS into dangerous levels and is assessed to be on track.For Malaria and other major diseases the assessment is “moderately on track” as these diseases are more affected by environmental concerns and to address them a broader approach is required than mere medical concerns.

(g) Target seven is environment sustainability which is “moderately on track”. Safe drinking water availability assessment is on track and for sanitation the assessment is “slow”.

(h) Eighth target is development through global partnership whose progress is satisfactory as private sectors is actively involved is the process of development.

So we can say that India’s performance on MDG’s is both good and bad. This assessment will also help India to formulate and implement policy decision accordingly.

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